In Vitro fermentation of oat and barley derived β-glucans by human faecal microbiota.
Hughes, S. A., Shewry, P. R., Gibson, G. R., McCleary, B. V. & Rastall, R. A. (2008). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 64(3), 482–493.
Fermentation of β-glucan fractions from barley [average molecular mass (MM), of 243, 172, and 137 kDa] and oats (average MM of 230 and 150 kDa) by the human faecal microbiota was investigated. Fractions were supplemented to pH-controlled anaerobic batch culture fermenters inoculated with human faecal samples from three donors, in triplicate, for each substrate. Microbiota changes were monitored by fluorescent in situ hybridization; groups enumerated were: Bifidobacterium genus, Bacteroides and Prevotella group, Clostridium histolyticum subgroup, Ruminococcus-Eubacterium-Clostridium (REC) cluster, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group, Atopobium cluster, and clostridial cluster IX. Short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid were measured by HPLC. The C. histolyticum subgroup increased significantly in all vessels and clostridial cluster IX maintained high populations with all fractions. The Bacteroides-Prevotella group increased with all but the 243-kDa barley and 230-kDa oat substrates. In general β-glucans displayed no apparent prebiotic potential. The SCFA profile (51 : 32 : 17; acetate : propionate : butyrate) was considered propionate-rich. In a further study a β-glucan oligosaccharide fraction was produced with a degree of polymerization of 3-4. This fraction was supplemented to small-scale faecal batch cultures and gave significant increases in the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group; however, the prebiotic potential of this fraction was marginal compared with that of inulin.
Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
Structural and mutagenetic analyses of a 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila.
Cheng, Y. S., Huang, C. H., Chen, C. C., Huang, T. Y., Ko, T. P., Huang, J. W., Wu. Tzu-Hui., Liu, J. R. & Guo, R. T. (2014). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins and Proteomics, 1844(2), 366-373.
The thermostable 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase PtLic16A from the fungus Paecilomyces thermophila catalyzes stringent hydrolysis of barley β-glucan and lichenan with an outstanding efficiency and has great potential for broad industrial applications. Here, we report the crystal structures of PtLic16A and an inactive mutant E113A in ligand-free form and in complex with the ligands cellobiose, cellotetraose and glucotriose at 1.80 Å to 2.25 Å resolution. PtLic16A adopts a typical β-jellyroll fold with a curved surface and the concave face forms an extended ligand binding cleft. These structures suggest that PtLic16A might carry out the hydrolysis via retaining mechanism with E113 and E118 serving as the nucleophile and general acid/base, respectively. Interestingly, in the structure of E113A/1,3–1,4-β-glucotriose complex, the sugar bound to the − 1 subsite adopts an intermediate-like (α-anomeric) configuration. By combining all crystal structures solved here, a comprehensive binding mode for a substrate is proposed. These findings not only help understand the 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase catalytic mechanism but also provide a basis for further enzymatic engineering.