Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
A secondary xylan-binding site enhances the catalytic activity of a single-domain family 11 glycoside hydrolase.
Ludwiczek, M. L., Heller, M., Kantner, T. & McIntosh, L. P. (2007). Journal of Molecular Biology, 373(2), 337-354.
Bacillus circulans xylanase (BcX) is a single-domain family 11 glycoside hydrolase. Using NMR-monitored titrations, we discovered that an inactive variant of this enzyme, E78Q-BcX, bound xylooligosaccharides not only within its pronounced active site (AS) cleft, but also at a distal surface region. Chemical shift perturbation mapping and affinity electrophoresis, combined with mutational studies, identified the xylan-specific secondary binding site (SBS) as a shallow groove lined by Asn, Ser, and Thr residues and with a Trp at one end. The AS and SBS bound short xylooligosaccharides with similar dissociation constants in the millimolar range. However, the on and off-rates to the SBS were at least tenfold faster than those of Kon ~3 × 105 M−1 s-1) and Koff ~1000 s-1 measured for xylotetraose to the AS of E78Q-BcX. Consistent with their structural differences, this suggests that a conformational change in the enzyme and/or the substrate is required for association to and dissociation from the deep AS, but not the shallow SBS. In contrast to the independent binding of small xylooligosaccharides, high-affinity binding of soluble and insoluble xylan, as well as xylododecaose, occurred cooperatively to the two sites. This was evidenced by an ~100-fold increase in relative Kd
values for these ligands upon mutation of the SBS. The SBS also enhances the activity of BcX towards soluble and insoluble xylan through a significant reduction in the Michaelis KM values for these polymeric substrates. This study provides an unexpected example of how a single domain family 11 xylanase overcomes the lack of a carbohydrate-binding module through the use of a secondary binding site to enhance substrate specificity and affinity.