Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
The mechanisms by which family 10 glycoside hydrolases bind decorated substrates.
Pell, G., Taylor, E. J., Gloster, T. M., Turkenburg, J. P., Fontes, C. M. G. A., Ferreira, L. M., Nagy, T., Clark, S. J., Davies, G. J. & Gilbert, H. J. (2004). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(10), 9597-9605.
Endo-β-1,4-xylanases (xylanases), which cleave β-1,4 glycosidic bonds in the xylan backbone, are important components of the repertoire of enzymes that catalyze plant cell wall degradation. The mechanism by which these enzymes are able to hydrolyze a range of decorated xylans remains unclear. Here we reveal the three-dimensional structure, determined by x-ray crystallography, and the catalytic properties of the Cellvibrio mixtus enzyme Xyn10B (CmXyn10B), the most active GH10 xylanases described to date. The crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with xylopentaose reveals that at the +1 subsite the xylose moiety is sandwiched between hydrophobic residues, which is likely to mediate tighter binding than in other GH10 xylanases. The crystal structure of the xylanase in complex with a range of decorated xylooligosaccharides reveals how this enzyme is able to hydrolyze substituted xylan. Solvent exposure of the O-2 groups of xylose at the +4, +3, +1, and -3 subsites may allow accommodation of the α-1,2-linked 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid side chain in glucuronoxylan at these locations. Furthermore, the uronic acid makes hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with the enzyme at the +1 subsite, indicating that the sugar decorations in glucuronoxylan are targeted to this proximal aglycone binding site. Accommodation of 3′-linked L-arabinofuranoside decorations is observed in the -2 subsite and could, most likely, be tolerated when bound to xylosides in -3 and +4. A notable feature of the binding mode of decorated substrates is the way in which the subsite specificities are tailored both to prevent the formation of “dead-end” reaction products and to facilitate synergy with the xylan degradation-accessory enzymes such as α-glucuronidase. The data described in this report and in the accompanying paper (Fujimoto, Z., Kaneko, S., Kuno, A., Kobayashi, H., Kusakabe, I., and Mizuno, H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 9606-9614) indicate that the complementarity in the binding of decorated substrates between the glycone and aglycone regions appears to be a conserved feature of GH10 xylanas.