A simple assay procedure for β-D-mannanase.
McCleary, B. V. (1978). Carbohydrate Research, 67(1), 213-221.
A simple assay procedure for β-D-mannanase enzyme has been developed which employs carob D-galacto-D-mannan dyed with Remazolbrilliant Blue. Additionally, the procedure is quantitative, relatively sensitive, and highly specific for β-D-mannanase enzyme. It can be readily used for the determination of β-D-mannanase activity in crude enzyme preparations and column-chromatography eluates.
A highly thermostable endo-(1, 4)-β-mannanase from the marine bacterium Rhodothermus marinus.
Politz, O., Krah, M., Thomsen, K. K. & Borriss, R. (2000). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 53(6), 715-721.
Rhodothermus marinus ATCC 43812, a thermophilic bacterium isolated from marine hot springs, possesses hydrolytic activities for depolymerising substrates such as carob-galactomannan. Screening of expression libraries identified mannanase-positive clones. Subsequently, the corresponding DNA sequences were determined, eventually identifying a coding sequence specifying a 997 amino acid residue protein of 113 kDa. Analyses revealed an N-terminal domain of unknown function and a C-terminal mannanase domain of 550 amino acid residues with homology to known mannanases of glycosidase family 26. Action pattern analysis categorised the R. marinus mannanase as an endo-acting enzyme with a requirement for at least five sugar moieties for effective catalytic activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified gene product with catalytic activity was mainly found as two protein fragments of 45 kDa and 50 kDa. The full-length protein of 113 kDa was only detected in crude extracts of R. marinus, while truncated protein-containing fractions of the original source resulted in a major active protein of 60 kDa. Biochemical analysis of the mannanase revealed a temperature and pH optimum of 85°C and pH 5.4, respectively. Purified, E. coli-produced protein fragments showed high heat stability, retaining more than 70% and 25% of the initial activity after 1 h incubation at 70°C and 90°C, respectively. In contrast, R. marinus-derived protein retained 87% activity after 1 h at 90°C. The enzyme hydrolysed carob-galactomannan (locust bean gum) effectively and to a smaller extent guar gum, but not yeast mannan.
Taxonomic and functional diversity of pseudomonads isolated from the roots of field‐grown canola.
Misko, A. L. & Germida, J. J. (2002). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 42(3), 399-407.
Among the most important rhizosphere bacteria are the pseudomonads, which are aggressive colonizers and utilize a wide range of substrates as carbon sources. The objective of this study was to determine if the taxonomic or metabolic diversity of pseudomonads differed among field-grown canola cultivars. Bacteria (n=2257) were isolated from the rhizosphere and root interior of six cultivars of field-grown canola, including three transgenic varieties. The bacteria were identified by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, and about 35% were identified as Pseudomonas species. The most abundant species were Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. Dendrograms based on FAME analysis revealed that many pseudomonad strains were found in all of the canola cultivars. Pseudomonads of the same strain were found in both the rhizosphere and the root interior of canola plants, suggesting that endophytic bacteria were a subset of the rhizosphere community. Because metabolic profiling provides more useful information than taxonomy, P. putida and P. chlororaphis isolates were characterized for their ability to utilize carbon substrates and produce several enzymes. Bacteria isolated from different plant cultivars had different carbon utilization profiles, but when only carbon substrates found in root exudates were analyzed, the cultivar effect was less pronounced. These characterizations also demonstrated that bacteria that were determined by FAME to be the same strain were metabolically different, suggesting functional redundancy among Pseudomonas isolates. The results of this study suggest that pseudomonads were functionally diverse. They differed in their metabolic potential among the canola cultivars from which they were isolated. Because bacteria capable of using many substrates can effectively adapt to new environments, these results have implications for the use of pseudomonads as biofertilizers, biological control agents and plant growth-promoting bacteria in canola.
Verminephrobacter aporrectodeae sp. nov. subsp. tuberculatae and subsp. caliginosae, the specific nephridial symbionts of the earthworms Aporrectodea tuberculata and A. caliginosa.
Lund, M. B., Schätzle, S., Schramm, A. & Kjeldsen, K. U. (2012). Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 101(3), 507-514.
Clone library-based studies have shown that almost all lumbricid earthworm species harbour host-specific symbiotic bacteria belonging to the novel genus Verminephrobacter in their nephridia (excretory organs). To date the only described representative from this genus is Verminephrobacter eiseniae, the specific symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. In this study two novel rod-shaped, non-endosporeforming, betaproteobacterial symbionts were isolated from the nephridia of two closely related earthworm species. Both isolates were affiliated with the genus Verminephrobacter by 16SrRNA gene sequence analysis. Similarly to V. eiseniae, the two isolates grew aerobically with a preference for low oxygen concentrations on a range of sugars, fatty acids and amino acids and fermentatively on glucose and pyruvate. These phenotypes match well with the conditions reported or inferred for the nephridial environment. Based on 16S rRNA gene similarity, DNA–DNA hybridization value and phenotypic characteristics the two isolates are clearly distinct from V. eiseniae. Phenotypic characteristics could not clearly differentiate the two strains as separate species but a low DNA–DNA hybridization value of 57.3%, their earthworm host specificity, differing temperature ranges and pH optima suggest that they represent two subspecies of a novel species of Verminephrobacter. For this species, the name V. aporrectodeae sp. nov. is proposed, with the two subspecies V. aporrectodeae subsp. tuberculatae (type strain, At4T = DSM 21361T = LMG 25313T) and V. aporrectodeae subsp. caliginosae (type strain, Ac9T = DSM 21895T = LMG 25312T) isolated from the nephridia of the earthworms Aporrectodea tuberculate and A. caliginosa, respectively.
LeMAN4 endo-β-mannanase from ripe tomato fruit can act as a mannan transglycosylase or hydrolase.
Schröder, R., Wegrzyn, T. F., Sharma, N. N. & Atkinson, R. G. (2006). Planta, 224(5), 1091-1102.
Mannan transglycosylases are cell wall enzymes able to transfer part of the mannan polysaccharide backbone to mannan-derived oligosaccharides (Schröder et al. in Planta 219:590–600, 2004). Mannan transglycosylase activity was purified to near homogeneity from ripe tomato fruit. N-terminal sequencing showed that the dominant band seen on SDS-PAGE was identical to LeMAN4a, a hydrolytic endo-β-mannanase found in ripe tomato fruit (Bewley et al. in J Exp Bot 51:529–538, 2000). Recombinant LeMAN4a protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited both mannan hydrolase and mannan transglycosylase activity. Western analysis of ripe tomato fruit tissue using an antibody raised against tomato seed endo-β-mannanase revealed four isoforms present after 2D-gel electrophoresis in the pH range 6–11. On separation by preparative liquid isoelectric focussing, these native isoforms exhibited different preferences for transglycosylation and hydrolysis. These results demonstrate that endo-β-mannanase has two activities: it can either hydrolyse mannan polysaccharides, or in the presence of mannan-derived oligosaccharides, carry out a transglycosylation reaction. We therefore propose that endo-β-mannanase should be renamed mannan transglycosylase/hydrolase, in accordance with the nomenclature established for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase. The role of endo-acting mannanases in modifying the structure of plant cell walls during cell expansion, seed germination and fruit ripening may need to be reinterpreted in light of their potential action as transglycosylating or hydrolysing enzymes.
Populus endo‐beta‐mannanase PtrMAN6 plays a role in coordinating cell wall remodeling with suppression of secondary wall thickening through generation of oligosaccharide signals.
Zhao, Y., Song, D., Sun, J. & Li, L. (2013). The Plant Journal, 74(3), 473-485.
Endo-1,4-β-mannanase is known to able to hydrolyze mannan-type polysaccharides in cell wall remodeling, but its function in regulating wall thickening has been little studied. Here we show that a Populus endo-1,4-β-mannanase gene, named PtrMAN6, suppresses cell wall thickening during xylem differentiation. PtrMAN6 is expressed specifically in xylem tissue and its encoded protein localizes to developing vessel cells. Overexpression of PtrMAN6 enhanced wall loosening as well as suppressed secondary wall thickening, whilst knockdown of its expression promoted secondary wall thickening. Transcriptional analysis revealed that PtrMAN6 overexpression downregulated the transcriptional program of secondary cell wall thickening, whilst PtrMAN6 knockdown upregulated transcriptional activities toward secondary wall formation. Activity of PtrMAN6 hydrolysis resulted in the generation of oligosaccharide compounds from cell wall polysaccharides. Application of the oligosaccharides resulted in cellular and transcriptional changes that were similar to those found in PtrMAN6 overexpressed transgenic plants. Overall, our results demonstrated that PtrMAN6 plays a role in hydrolysis of mannan-type wall polysaccharides to produce oligosaccharides that may serve as signaling molecules to suppress cell wall thickening during wood xylem cell differentiation.
Molecular and biochemical characterization of endo-β-mannanases from germinating coffee (Coffea arabica) grains.
Marraccini, P., Rogers, J. W., Allard, C., André, M. L., Caillet, V., Lacoste, N., Lausanne, F. & Michaux, S. (2001). Planta, 213(2), 296-308.
The activity of endo-β-mannanase ([1→4]-β-mannan endohydrolase EC 22.214.171.124) is likely to be central to the metabolism of cell wall mannans during the germination of grains of coffee (Coffea spp.). In the present paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of two endo-β-mannanase cDNAs (manA and manB) by different strategies from Coffea Arabica L.. The manA cDNA was obtained by the use of oligonucleotides homologous to published sequences of other endo-β-mannanases and manB by the use of oligonucleotides deduced from a purified enzyme from coffee. ManA and B proteins share about 56% sequence homology and include highly conserved regions found in other mannan endohydrolases. Purification of the activity by chromatography followed by separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis and amino acid sequencing demonstrated the existence of at least seven isomers of the ManB form. The existence of multiple manB genes was also indicated by Southern analysis, whereas only one or two gene copies were detected for manA. Northern hybridizations with manA- and manB-specific probes showed that mRNA transcripts for both cDNAs were present at the same periods of bean germination with transcript peaks at 20 days after imbibition of water (DAI). Transcripts were not detected during grain maturation or in the other tissues such as roots, stems, flowers and leaves. The peak endo-β-mannanase activity occurred at approximately 28 DAI and was not detected in grains prior to imbibition. Activity and mRNA levels appeared to be tightly co-ordinated. Tests of substrate specificity with the purified ManB enzyme showed that activity required a minimum of five mannose units to function efficiently.
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils.
Pitt, J. I., Lange, L., Lacey, A. E., Vuong, D., Midgley, D. J., Greenfield, P., Bradbury, M. I., Lacey, E., Busk, P. K., Pilgaard, B., Chooi, Y. H. & Piggott, A. M. (2017). PloS One, 12(4), e0170254.
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in southeast Australia. It is phylogenetically and phenotypically related most closely to A. leporis States and M. Chr., but differs in conidial colour, other minor features and particularly in metabolite profile. When cultivated on rice as an optimal substrate, A. hancockii produced an extensive array of 69 secondary metabolites. Eleven of the 15 most abundant secondary metabolites, constituting 90% of the total area under the curve of the HPLC trace of the crude extract, were novel. The genome of A. hancockii, approximately 40 Mbp, was sequenced and mined for genes encoding carbohydrate degrading enzymes identified the presence of more than 370 genes in 114 gene clusters, demonstrating that A. hancockii has the capacity to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, chitin, cutin and fructan as nutrient sources. Like most Aspergillus species, A. hancockii exhibited a diverse secondary metabolite gene profile, encoding 26 polyketide synthase, 16 nonribosomal peptide synthase and 15 nonribosomal peptide synthase-like enzymes.
Cell separation in kiwifruit without development of a specialised detachment zone.
Prakash, R., Hallett, I. C., Wong, S. F., Johnston, S. L., O’Donoghue, E. M., McAtee, P. A., Seal, A. G., Atkinson, R. G. & Schröder, R. (2017). BMC Plant Biology, 17(1), 86.
Background: Unlike in abscission or dehiscence, fruit of kiwifruit Actinidia eriantha develop the ability for peel detachment when they are ripe and soft in the absence of a morphologically identifiable abscission zone. Two closely-related genotypes with contrasting detachment behaviour have been identified. The ‘good-peeling’ genotype has detachment with clean debonding of cells, and a peel tissue that does not tear. The ‘poor-peeling’ genotype has poor detachability, with cells that rupture upon debonding, and peel tissue that fragments easily. Results: Structural studies indicated that peel detachability in both genotypes occurred in the outer pericarp beneath the hypodermis. Immunolabelling showed differences in methylesterification of pectin, where the interface of labelling coincided with the location of detachment in the good-peeling genotype, whereas in the poor-peeling genotype, no such interface existed. This zone of difference in methylesterification was enhanced by differential cell wall changes between the peel and outer pericarp tissue. Although both genotypes expressed two polygalacturonase genes, no enzyme activity was detected in the good-peeling genotype, suggesting limited pectin breakdown, keeping cell walls strong without tearing or fragmentation of the peel and flesh upon detachment. Differences in location and amounts of wall-stiffening galactan in the peel of the good-peeling genotype possibly contributed to this phenotype. Hemicellulose-acting transglycosylases were more active in the good-peeling genotype, suggesting an influence on peel flexibility by remodelling their substrates during development of detachability. High xyloglucanase activity in the peel of the good-peeling genotype may contribute by having a strengthening effect on the cellulose-xyloglucan network. Conclusions: In fruit of A. eriantha, peel detachability is due to the establishment of a zone of discontinuity created by differential cell wall changes in peel and outer pericarp tissues that lead to changes in mechanical properties of the peel. During ripening, the peel becomes flexible and the cells continue to adhere strongly to each other, preventing breakage, whereas the underlying outer pericarp loses cell wall strength as softening proceeds. Together these results reveal a novel and interesting mechanism for enabling cell separation.