A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1, 4-glucanase: biochemical properties and inhibition studies.
Wong, D. D. W. S., Chan, V. J., McCormack, A. A. & Batt, S. B. (2010). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86(5), 1463-1471.
A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene (xeg5A) was isolated, cloned, and expressed in Esherichia coli. The enzyme XEG5A consisted of a C-terminal catalytic domain and N-terminal sequence of ~90 amino acid residues with unknown function. The catalytic domain assumed an (α/β)8-fold typical of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5, with the two catalytic residues Glu240 and Glu362 located on opposite sides of the surface groove of the molecule. The recombinant enzyme showed high specificity towards tamarind xyloglucan and decreasing activity towards xyloglucan oligosaccharide (HDP-XGO), carboxymethyl cellulose, and lichenan. Tamarind xyloglucan was hydrolyzed to three major fragments, XXXG, XXLG/XLXG, and XLLG. The hydrolysis followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics, yielding Km and Vmax of 3.61 ± 0.23 mg/ml and 0.30 ± 0.01 mg/ml/min, respectively. However, the hydrolysis of HDP-XGO showed a decrease in the rate at high concentrations suggesting appearance of excess substrate inhibition. The addition of XXXG resulted in linear noncompetitive inhibition on the hydrolysis of tamarind xyloglucan giving a Ki of 1.46 ± 0.13 mM. The enzyme was devoid of transglycosylase activities.
Characterization and three-dimensional structures of two distinct bacterial xyloglucanases from families GH5 and GH12.
Gloster, T. M., Ibatullin, F. M., Macauley, K., Eklöf, J. M., Roberts, S., Turkenburg, J. P., Bjørnvad, M. E., Jørgensen, P. L., Danielsen, S., Johansen, K. S., Borchert, T. V., Wilson, K. S., Brumer, H. & Davies, G. J. (2007). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282(26), 19177-19189.
The plant cell wall is a complex material in which the cellulose microfibrils are embedded within a mesh of other polysaccharides, some of which are loosely termed “hemicellulose.” One such hemicellulose is xyloglucan, which displays a β-1,4-linked D-glucose backbone substituted with xylose, galactose, and occasionally fucose moieties. Both xyloglucan and the enzymes responsible for its modification and degradation are finding increasing prominence, reflecting both the drive for enzymatic biomass conversion, their role in detergent applications, and the utility of modified xyloglucans for cellulose fiber modification. Here we present the enzymatic characterization and three-dimensional structures in ligand-free and xyloglucan-oligosaccharide complexed forms of two distinct xyloglucanases from glycoside hydrolase families GH5 and GH12. The enzymes, Paenibacillus pabuli XG5 and Bacillus licheniformis XG12, both display open active center grooves grafted upon their respective (β/α)8 and β-jelly roll folds, in which the side chain decorations of xyloglucan may be accommodated. For the β-jelly roll enzyme topology of GH12, binding of xylosyl and pendant galactosyl moieties is tolerated, but the enzyme is similarly competent in the degradation of unbranched glucans. In the case of the (β/α)8 GH5 enzyme, kinetically productive interactions are made with both xylose and galactose substituents, as reflected in both a high specific activity on xyloglucan and the kinetics of a series of aryl glycosides. The differential strategies for the accommodation of the side chains of xyloglucan presumably facilitate the action of these microbial hydrolases in milieus where diverse and differently substituted substrates may be encountered.
Cloning and characterization of an exo-xylogucanase from rumenal microbial metagenome.
Wong, D. D., Chan, V. J., McCormack, A. A. & Batt, S. B. (2010). Protein and Peptide Letters, 17(6), 803-808.
A novel exo-glucanase gene (xeg5B) was isolated from a rumenal microbial metagenome, cloned, and expressed in E. coli. The 1548 bp gene coded for a protein of 516 amino acids, which assumed an (α/β)8 fold typical of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5. The protein molecule consisted of a loop segment blocking one end of the active site, which potentially provided the enzyme with exo-acting property. The recombinant enzyme showed exclusive specificity towards xyloglucan and oligoxyloglucan substrates with no detectable activity on unsubstituted linear glucans, CMC, laminarin, and lichenan. The major end products of exhaustive hydrolysis were XX (tetrasaccharide) and XG (trisaccharide). The hydrolysis of tamarind xyloglucan followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, yielding Km and Vmax of 2.12±0.13 mg/ml and 0.17±0.01 mg/ml/min (37°C, pH 6.0), respectively.
Biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable xyloglucanase from an alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp.
Pol, D., Menon, V. & Rao, M. (2012). Extremophiles, 16(1), 135-146.
Xyloglucanase from an extracellular culture filtrate of alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp. was purified to homogeneity with a molecular weight of 144 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and exhibited specificity towards xyloglucan with apparent K m of 1.67 mg/ml. The enzyme was active at a broad range of pH (5–8) and temperatures (40–80°C). The optimum pH and temperature were 7 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme retained 100% activity at 50°C for 60 h with half-lives of 14 h, 6 h and 7 min at 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. The kinetics of thermal denaturation revealed that the inactivation at 80°C is due to unfolding of the enzyme as evidenced by the distinct red shift in the wavelength maximum of the fluorescence profile. Xyloglucanase activity was positively modulated in the presence of Zn2+, K+, cysteine, β-mercaptoethanol and polyols. Thermostability was enhanced in the presence of additives (polyols and glycine) at 80°C. A hydrolysis of 55% for galactoxyloglucan (GXG) from tamarind kernel powder (TKP) was obtained in 12 h at 60°C and 6 h at 70°C using thermostable xyloglucanases, favouring a reduction in process time and enzyme dosage. The enzyme was stable in the presence of commercial detergents (Ariel), indicating its potential as an additive to laundry detergents.
Comparative Characterization of a Bifunctional endo-1, 4-β-Mannanase/1, 3-1, 4-β-glucanase and its Individual Domains.
Wong, D. W., Chan, V. J. & McCormack, A. A. (2013). Protein and Peptide Letters, 20(5), 517-523.
A fusion gene isolated from a microbial metagenome encodes a N-terminal endo-1,4-β-mannanase and a C terminal 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase,. The full-length gene and the individual N- and C-domains were separately cloned and expressed in E coli. The purified whole enzyme hydrolyzed glucomannan, galactomannan, and β-glucan with Km and kcat values 2.2, 2.6, 3.6 mg/ml, and 302, 130, 337 min -1 , respectively. The hydrolysis of β-glucan by the C domain enzyme decreased significantly with added glucomannan to the reaction, suggesting inhibition effect. Analogous result was not observed with the N domain enzyme when β-glucan was added to the reaction. The whole enzyme did not show improvement of efficiency compared to the individual or additive total hydrolysis of the two domain enzymes using single or mixed substrates.
Controlling water permeability of composite films of polylactide acid, cellulose, and xyloglucan.
Gårdebjer, S., Larsson, A., Löfgren, C. & Ström, A. (2015). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132(1), 41219.
To test the hypothesis that the introduction of a hydrophilic hemicellulose would affect viscoelastic properties and increase water permeability, xyloglucan (XG) was adsorbed onto the surface of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in water dispersion prior to the extrusion of 79–80 wt % polylactide acid (PLA), 20 wt % MCC, and 0–1 wt % XG. For comparison, composites of PLA, MCC, and non-absorbed XG were produced. Analysis of thermal properties showed no differences for glass-transition or melting temperatures, but the crystallinity of the films increased with the addition of MCC and XG. Storage modulus of the composite materials increased with XG content; however, at higher humidities storage modulus decreased, probably because of lower interfacial adhesion. Water permeability through the films increased more with the addition of XG adsorbed to the MCC than with the MCC and XG simply mixed in the same amounts.