A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1, 4-glucanase: biochemical properties and inhibition studies.
Wong, D. D. W. S., Chan, V. J., McCormack, A. A. & Batt, S. B. (2010). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86(5), 1463-1471.
A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene (xeg5A) was isolated, cloned, and expressed in Esherichia coli. The enzyme XEG5A consisted of a C-terminal catalytic domain and N-terminal sequence of ~90 amino acid residues with unknown function. The catalytic domain assumed an (α/β)8-fold typical of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5, with the two catalytic residues Glu240 and Glu362 located on opposite sides of the surface groove of the molecule. The recombinant enzyme showed high specificity towards tamarind xyloglucan and decreasing activity towards xyloglucan oligosaccharide (HDP-XGO), carboxymethyl cellulose, and lichenan. Tamarind xyloglucan was hydrolyzed to three major fragments, XXXG, XXLG/XLXG, and XLLG. The hydrolysis followed the Michaelis–Menten kinetics, yielding Km and Vmax of 3.61 ± 0.23 mg/ml and 0.30 ± 0.01 mg/ml/min, respectively. However, the hydrolysis of HDP-XGO showed a decrease in the rate at high concentrations suggesting appearance of excess substrate inhibition. The addition of XXXG resulted in linear noncompetitive inhibition on the hydrolysis of tamarind xyloglucan giving a Ki of 1.46 ± 0.13 mM. The enzyme was devoid of transglycosylase activities.
Characterization and three-dimensional structures of two distinct bacterial xyloglucanases from families GH5 and GH12.
Gloster, T. M., Ibatullin, F. M., Macauley, K., Eklöf, J. M., Roberts, S., Turkenburg, J. P., Bjørnvad, M. E., Jørgensen, P. L., Danielsen, S., Johansen, K. S., Borchert, T. V., Wilson, K. S., Brumer, H. & Davies, G. J. (2007). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282(26), 19177-19189.
The plant cell wall is a complex material in which the cellulose microfibrils are embedded within a mesh of other polysaccharides, some of which are loosely termed “hemicellulose.” One such hemicellulose is xyloglucan, which displays a β-1,4-linked D-glucose backbone substituted with xylose, galactose, and occasionally fucose moieties. Both xyloglucan and the enzymes responsible for its modification and degradation are finding increasing prominence, reflecting both the drive for enzymatic biomass conversion, their role in detergent applications, and the utility of modified xyloglucans for cellulose fiber modification. Here we present the enzymatic characterization and three-dimensional structures in ligand-free and xyloglucan-oligosaccharide complexed forms of two distinct xyloglucanases from glycoside hydrolase families GH5 and GH12. The enzymes, Paenibacillus pabuli XG5 and Bacillus licheniformis XG12, both display open active center grooves grafted upon their respective (β/α)8 and β-jelly roll folds, in which the side chain decorations of xyloglucan may be accommodated. For the β-jelly roll enzyme topology of GH12, binding of xylosyl and pendant galactosyl moieties is tolerated, but the enzyme is similarly competent in the degradation of unbranched glucans. In the case of the (β/α)8 GH5 enzyme, kinetically productive interactions are made with both xylose and galactose substituents, as reflected in both a high specific activity on xyloglucan and the kinetics of a series of aryl glycosides. The differential strategies for the accommodation of the side chains of xyloglucan presumably facilitate the action of these microbial hydrolases in milieus where diverse and differently substituted substrates may be encountered.
Cloning and characterization of an exo-xylogucanase from rumenal microbial metagenome.
Wong, D. D., Chan, V. J., McCormack, A. A. & Batt, S. B. (2010). Protein and Peptide Letters, 17(6), 803-808.
A novel exo-glucanase gene (xeg5B) was isolated from a rumenal microbial metagenome, cloned, and expressed in E. coli. The 1548 bp gene coded for a protein of 516 amino acids, which assumed an (α/β)8 fold typical of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5. The protein molecule consisted of a loop segment blocking one end of the active site, which potentially provided the enzyme with exo-acting property. The recombinant enzyme showed exclusive specificity towards xyloglucan and oligoxyloglucan substrates with no detectable activity on unsubstituted linear glucans, CMC, laminarin, and lichenan. The major end products of exhaustive hydrolysis were XX (tetrasaccharide) and XG (trisaccharide). The hydrolysis of tamarind xyloglucan followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, yielding Km and Vmax of 2.12±0.13 mg/ml and 0.17±0.01 mg/ml/min (37°C, pH 6.0), respectively.
Biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable xyloglucanase from an alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp.
Pol, D., Menon, V. & Rao, M. (2012). Extremophiles, 16(1), 135-146.
Xyloglucanase from an extracellular culture filtrate of alkalothermophilic Thermomonospora sp. was purified to homogeneity with a molecular weight of 144 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and exhibited specificity towards xyloglucan with apparent K m of 1.67 mg/ml. The enzyme was active at a broad range of pH (5–8) and temperatures (40–80°C). The optimum pH and temperature were 7 and 70°C, respectively. The enzyme retained 100% activity at 50°C for 60 h with half-lives of 14 h, 6 h and 7 min at 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. The kinetics of thermal denaturation revealed that the inactivation at 80°C is due to unfolding of the enzyme as evidenced by the distinct red shift in the wavelength maximum of the fluorescence profile. Xyloglucanase activity was positively modulated in the presence of Zn2+, K+, cysteine, β-mercaptoethanol and polyols. Thermostability was enhanced in the presence of additives (polyols and glycine) at 80°C. A hydrolysis of 55% for galactoxyloglucan (GXG) from tamarind kernel powder (TKP) was obtained in 12 h at 60°C and 6 h at 70°C using thermostable xyloglucanases, favouring a reduction in process time and enzyme dosage. The enzyme was stable in the presence of commercial detergents (Ariel), indicating its potential as an additive to laundry detergents.
Comparative Characterization of a Bifunctional endo-1, 4-β-Mannanase/1, 3-1, 4-β-glucanase and its Individual Domains.
Wong, D. W., Chan, V. J. & McCormack, A. A. (2013). Protein and Peptide Letters, 20(5), 517-523.
A fusion gene isolated from a microbial metagenome encodes a N-terminal endo-1,4-β-mannanase and a C terminal 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase,. The full-length gene and the individual N- and C-domains were separately cloned and expressed in E coli. The purified whole enzyme hydrolyzed glucomannan, galactomannan, and β-glucan with Km and kcat values 2.2, 2.6, 3.6 mg/ml, and 302, 130, 337 min -1 , respectively. The hydrolysis of β-glucan by the C domain enzyme decreased significantly with added glucomannan to the reaction, suggesting inhibition effect. Analogous result was not observed with the N domain enzyme when β-glucan was added to the reaction. The whole enzyme did not show improvement of efficiency compared to the individual or additive total hydrolysis of the two domain enzymes using single or mixed substrates.
Controlling water permeability of composite films of polylactide acid, cellulose, and xyloglucan.
Gårdebjer, S., Larsson, A., Löfgren, C. & Ström, A. (2015). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132(1), 41219.
To test the hypothesis that the introduction of a hydrophilic hemicellulose would affect viscoelastic properties and increase water permeability, xyloglucan (XG) was adsorbed onto the surface of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in water dispersion prior to the extrusion of 79–80 wt % polylactide acid (PLA), 20 wt % MCC, and 0–1 wt % XG. For comparison, composites of PLA, MCC, and non-absorbed XG were produced. Analysis of thermal properties showed no differences for glass-transition or melting temperatures, but the crystallinity of the films increased with the addition of MCC and XG. Storage modulus of the composite materials increased with XG content; however, at higher humidities storage modulus decreased, probably because of lower interfacial adhesion. Water permeability through the films increased more with the addition of XG adsorbed to the MCC than with the MCC and XG simply mixed in the same amounts.
Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production.
Jones, R. W. (2016). Journal of Microbiological Methods, 120, 65-67.
When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after Agrobacterium infiltration, difficulties arise due to the thin leaf structure. Thick leaved succulents, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Hylotelephium telephium, were tested as alternatives. A xyloglucanase, as well as a xyloglucanase inhibitor protein was successfully produced.
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils.
Pitt, J. I., Lange, L., Lacey, A. E., Vuong, D., Midgley, D. J., Greenfield, P., Bradbury, M. I., Lacey, E., Busk, P. K., Pilgaard, B., Chooi, Y. H. & Piggott, A. M. (2017). PloS One, 12(4), e0170254.
Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations in southeast Australia. It is phylogenetically and phenotypically related most closely to A. leporis States and M. Chr., but differs in conidial colour, other minor features and particularly in metabolite profile. When cultivated on rice as an optimal substrate, A. hancockii produced an extensive array of 69 secondary metabolites. Eleven of the 15 most abundant secondary metabolites, constituting 90% of the total area under the curve of the HPLC trace of the crude extract, were novel. The genome of A. hancockii, approximately 40 Mbp, was sequenced and mined for genes encoding carbohydrate degrading enzymes identified the presence of more than 370 genes in 114 gene clusters, demonstrating that A. hancockii has the capacity to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, chitin, cutin and fructan as nutrient sources. Like most Aspergillus species, A. hancockii exhibited a diverse secondary metabolite gene profile, encoding 26 polyketide synthase, 16 nonribosomal peptide synthase and 15 nonribosomal peptide synthase-like enzymes.
Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter.
Huang, Y., Yi, Z., Jin, Y., Huang, M., He, K., Liu, D., Luo, H., Zhao, D., He, H., Fang, Y. & Zhao, H. (2017). Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 1747.
Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process. Fungi were found to be the most abundant and active community members. A total of 932 carbohydrate-active enzymes, including highly expressed auxiliary activity family 9 and 10 proteins, were identified at 62°C under aerobic conditions. Some potential thermostable enzymes were identified at 50, 62, and 25°C (mature stage). Increased content and overexpressed key enzymes involved in glycolysis and starch, pyruvate and ethanol metabolism were detected at 50 and 62°C. The key enzymes of the citrate cycle were up-regulated at 62°C, and their abundant derivatives are crucial for flavor generation. Here, the metabolism and functional enzymes of the active microbial communities in NF liquor starter were studied, which could pave the way to initiate improvements in liquor quality and to discover microbes that produce novel enzymes or high-value added products.