Grape and wine analysis: Oenologists to exploit advanced test kits.
Charnock, S. C. & McCleary, B. V. (2005). Revue des Enology, 117, 1-5.
It is without doubt that testing plays a pivotal role throughout the whole of the vinification process. To produce the best possible quality wine and to minimise process problems such as “stuck” fermentation or troublesome infections, it is now recognised that if possible testing should begin prior to harvesting of the grapes and continue through to bottling. Traditional methods of wine analysis are often expensive, time consuming, require either elaborate equipment or specialist expertise and frequently lack accuracy. However, enzymatic bio-analysis enables the accurate measurement of the vast majority of analytes of interest to the wine maker, using just one piece of apparatus, the spectrophotometer (see previous issue No. 116 for a detailed technical review). Grape juice and wine are amenable to enzymatic testing as being liquids they are homogenous, easy to manipulate, and can generally be analysed without any sample preparation.
Megazyme “advanced” wine test kits general characteristics and validation.
Charnock, S. J., McCleary, B. V., Daverede, C. & Gallant, P. (2006). Reveue des Oenologues, 120, 1-5.
Many of the enzymatic test kits are official methods of prestigious organisations such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemicals (AOAC) and the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) in response to the interest from oenologists. Megazyme decided to use its long history of enzymatic bio-analysis to make a significant contribution to the wine industry, by the development of a range of advanced enzymatic test kits. This task has now been successfully completed through the strategic and comprehensive process of identifying limitations of existing enzymatic bio-analysis test kits where they occurred, and then using advanced techniques, such as molecular biology (photo 1), to rapidly overcome them. Novel test kits have also been developed for analytes of emerging interest to the oenologist, such as yeast available nitrogen (YAN; see pages 2-3 of issue 117 article), or where previously enzymes were simply either not available, or were too expensive to employ, such as for D-mannitol analysis.
Combined intracellular nitrate and NIT2 effects on storage carbohydrate metabolism in Chlamydomonas.
Remacle, C., Eppe, G., Coosemans, N., Fernandez, E. & Vigeolas, H. (2014). Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(1), 23-33.
Microalgae are receiving increasing attention as alternative production systems for renewable energy such as biofuel. The photosynthetic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is widely recognized as the model system to study all aspects of algal physiology, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG), which are the precursors of biofuel. All of these pathways not only require a carbon (C) supply but also are strongly dependent on a source of nitrogen (N) to sustain optimal growth rate and biomass production. In order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of C and N metabolisms and the accumulation of storage carbohydrates, the effect of different N sources (NH4NO3 and NH4+) on primary metabolism using various mutants impaired in either NIA1, NIT2 or both loci was performed by metabolic analyses. The data demonstrated that, using NH4NO3, nia1 strain displayed the most striking phenotype, including an inhibition of growth, accumulation of intracellular nitrate, and strong starch and TAG accumulation. The measurements of the different C and N intermediate levels (amino, organic, and fatty acids), together with the determination of acetate and NH4+ remaining in the medium, clearly excluded the hypothesis of a slower NH4+ and acetate assimilation in this mutant in the presence of NH4NO3. The results provide evidence of the implication of intracellular nitrate and NIT2 in the control of C partitioning into different storage carbohydrates under mixotrophic conditions in
Chlamydomonas. The underlying mechanisms and implications for strategies to increase biomass yield and storage product composition in oleaginous algae are discussed.
A mutation in GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase causes conditional hypersensitivity to ammonium, resulting in Arabidopsis root growth inhibition, altered ammonium metabolism, and hormone homeostasis.
Barth, C., Gouzd, Z. A., Steele, H. P. & Imperio, R. M. (2010). Journal of Experimental Botany, 61(2), 379-394.
Ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant fulfilling a multitude of cellular functions. Given its pivotal role in maintaining the rate of cell growth and division in the quiescent centre of the root, it was hypothesized that the AA-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants vtc1-1, vtc2-1, vtc3-1, and vtc4-1 have altered root growth. To test this hypothesis, root development was studied in the wild type and vtc1 mutants grown on Murashige and Skoog medium. It was discovered, however, that only the vtc1-1 mutant has strongly retarded root growth, while the other vtc mutants exhibit a wild-type root phenotype. It is demonstrated that the short-root phenotype in vtc1-1 is independent of AA deficiency and oxidative stress. Instead, vtc1-1 is conditionally hypersensitive to ammonium (NH4+). To provide new insights into the mechanism of NH4+ sensitivity in vtc1-1, root development, NH4+ content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase activity, and glutamine content were assessed in wild-type and vtc1-1 mutant plants grown in the presence and absence of high NH4+ and the GS inhibitor MSO. Since VTC1 encodes a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, an enzyme generating GDP-mannose for AA biosynthesis and protein N-glycosylation, it was also tested whether protein N-glycosylation is affected in vtc1-1. Furthermore, since root development requires the action of a variety of hormones, it was investigated whether hormone homeostasis is linked to NH4+ sensitivity in vtc1-1. Our data suggest that NH4+ hypersensitivity in
vtc1-1 is caused by disturbed N-glycosylation and that it is associated with auxin and ethylene homeostasis and/or nitric oxide signalling.
Proteomic phenotyping of Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens reveals a robust capacity for simultaneous nitrogen fixation, polyhydroxyalkanoate production, and resistance to reactive oxygen species.
Smit, A. M., Strabala, T. J., Peng, L., Rawson, P., Lloyd-Jones, G. & Jordan, T. W. (2012). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(14), 4802-4815.
Novosphingobium nitrogenifigens Y88T (Y88) is a free-living, diazotrophic Alphaproteobacterium, capable of producing 80% of its biomass as the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). We explored the potential utility of this species as a polyhydroxybutyrate production strain, correlating the effects of glucose, nitrogen availability, dissolved oxygen concentration, and extracellular pH with polyhydroxybutyrate production and changes in the Y88 proteomic profile. Using two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 217 unique proteins from six growth conditions. We observed reproducible, characteristic proteomic signatures for each of the physiological states we examined. We identified proteins that changed in abundance in correlation with either nitrogen fixation, dissolved oxygen concentration, or acidification of the growth medium. The proteins that correlated with nitrogen fixation were identified either as known nitrogen fixation proteins or as novel proteins that we predict play roles in aspects of nitrogen fixation based on their proteomic profiles. In contrast, the proteins involved in central carbon and polyhydroxybutyrate metabolism were constitutively abundant, consistent with the constitutive polyhydroxybutyrate production that we observed in this species. Three proteins with roles in detoxification of reactive oxygen species were identified in this obligate aerobe. The most abundant protein in all experiments was a polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein, phasin. The full-length isoform of this protein has a long, intrinsically disordered Ala/Pro/Lys-rich N-terminal segment, a feature that appears to be unique to sphingomonad phasins. The data suggest that Y88 has potential as a PHB production strain due to its aerobic tolerance and metabolic orientation toward polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation, even in low-nitrogen growth medium.
No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates.
Biesiekierski, J. R., Peters, S. L., Newnham, E. D., Rosella, O., Muir, J. G. & Gibson, P. R. (2013). Gastroenterology, 145(2), 320-328.
Background & Aims: Patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) do not have celiac disease but their symptoms improve when they are placed on gluten-free diets. We investigated the specific effects of gluten after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates (fermentable, oligo-, di-, monosaccharides, and polyols [FODMAPs]) in subjects believed to have NCGS. Methods: We performed a double-blind cross-over trial of 37 subjects (aged 24−61 y, 6 men) with NCGS and irritable bowel syndrome (based on Rome III criteria), but not celiac disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given a 2-week diet of reduced FODMAPs, and were then placed on high-gluten (16 g gluten/d), low-gluten (2 g gluten/d and 14 g whey protein/d), or control (16 g whey protein/d) diets for 1 week, followed by a washout period of at least 2 weeks. We assessed serum and fecal markers of intestinal inflammation/injury and immune activation, and indices of fatigue. Twenty-two participants then crossed over to groups given gluten (16 g/d), whey (16 g/d), or control (no additional protein) diets for 3 days. Symptoms were evaluated by visual analogue scales. Results: In all participants, gastrointestinal symptoms consistently and significantly improved during reduced FODMAP intake, but significantly worsened to a similar degree when their diets included gluten or whey protein. Gluten-specific effects were observed in only 8% of participants. There were no diet-specific changes in any biomarker. During the 3-day rechallenge, participants’ symptoms increased by similar levels among groups. Gluten-specific gastrointestinal effects were not reproduced. An order effect was observed. Conclusions: In a placebo-controlled, cross-over rechallenge study, we found no evidence of specific or dose-dependent effects of gluten in patients with NCGS placed diets low in FODMAPs.
The interaction between high ammonia diet and bile duct ligation in developing rats: assessment by spatial memory and asymmetric dimethylarginine.
Huang, L. T., Chen, C. C., Sheen, J. M., Chen, Y. J., Hsieh, C. S. & Tain, Y. L. (2010). International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 28(2), 169-174.
Bile duct ligation (BDL) in developing rats causes cholestasis, impaired liver function and cognition. Because both nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia are implicated in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), we hypothesized that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor, and ammonia affect cognition in young rats with BDL. Four groups of young male Sprague–Dawley rats ages 17 days were used: rat underwent laparotomy (SC group), rat underwent laparotomy plus a 30% ammonium acetate diet (SC + HA group), rat underwent BDL (BDL group), rats underwent BDL plus high ammonia diet (BDL + HA group). Spatial memory was assessed by Morris water maze task. Plasma was collected for biochemical and ADMA analyses. Liver and brain cortex were collected for determination of protein arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1, ADMA-synthesizing enzyme) and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, ADMA-metabolizing enzyme). We found BDL group had significantly higher plasma direct/total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ADMA, liver p22phox, and worse spatial performance as compared with SC group. High ammonia diet increased plasma ammonia and ADMA concentration, and aggravated spatial deficit in the presence of BDL-induced cholestasis. We conclude plasma ADMA plays a role in BDL-induced spatial deficit. High ammonia aggravated the spatial deficits encountered in cholestatic young rats.
Dietary protein excess during neonatal life alters colonic Microbiota and mucosal response to inflammatory mediators later in life in female pigs.
Boudry, G., Jamin, A., Chatelais, L., Gras-Le Guen, C., Michel, C. & Le Huërou-Luron, I. (2013). The Journal of Nutrition, 143(8), 1225-1232.
The interplay between the colonic microbiota and gut epithelial and immune cells during the neonatal period, which establishes the structure of the microbiota and programs mucosal immunity, is affected by the diet. We hypothesized that protein-enriched milk formula would disturb this interplay through greater flux of protein entering the colon, with consequences later in life. Piglets were fed from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 28 either a normal-protein formula (NP; 51 g protein/L) or high-protein formula (HP; 77 g protein/L) and weaned at PND28, when they received standard diets until PND160. HP feeding transiently increased the quantity of protein entering the colon (PND7) but did not change the microbiota composition at PND28, except for a higher production of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in an in vitro fermentation test (P< 0.05). HP piglets had greater colonic mucosa densities of cluster of differentiation (CD) 3+ and CD172+ cells and lower Il-1β and Tnfα mRNA levels at PND28 (P< 0.05). Later in life (PND160), HP females, but not males, had a higher increase in colonic permeability after ex vivo oxidative stress and higher cytokine secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide in colonic explant cultures than NP females (P< 0.05). HP females also had lower colonic amounts of F. prausnitzii and BCFAs (P< 0.05). BCFAs displayed a dose-dependent protection against inflammation-induced alteration of barrier function in Caco-2 cells (P< 0.05). In conclusion, protein-enriched formula had little impact on colonic microbiota, but it modified colonic immune cell development and had a long-term effect on adult colonic mucosa sensitivity to inflammatory insults, probably through microbiotal and hormonal factors.
Effects of enzymatic modification of wheat protein on the formation of pyrazines and other volatile components in the Maillard reaction.
Lee, S. E., Chung, H. & Kim, Y. S. (2012). Food Chemistry, 131(4), 1248-1254.
Enzymatically hydrolysed wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) was deamidated using glutaminase to produce deamidated wheat gluten hydrolysate (DWGH). Volatile components were analysed in WGH and DWGH thermally reacted with glucose or fructose. In the reaction system containing glucose, 19 pyrazines, 2 furans, and 5 sulphur-containing components were detected in WGH, while 34 pyrazines, 4 furans, and 7 sulphur-containing components were found in DWGH. In the system containing fructose, 24 pyrazines, 3 furans, and 6 sulphur-containing components were identified in the thermal reaction of WGH, whereas 36 pyrazines, 4 furans, and 8 sulphur-containing components were found in DWGH. The volatile components increased in DWGH, both qualitatively and quantitatively, mainly due to free ammonia released by deamidation. More volatiles were also developed in WGH and DWGH with fructose than with glucose. It was found that ammonia released from wheat protein via deamidation participated in the generation of diverse volatile components including pyrazines in the Maillard reaction.
Characterization of antibodies and development of an indirect competitive immunoassay for detection of deamidated gluten.
Tranquet, O., Lupi, R., Echasserieau-Laporte, V., Pietri, M., Larré, C. & Denery-Papini, S. (2015). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(22), 5403-5409.
Diversification of gluten applications in the food and cosmetics industries was achieved through the production of water-soluble gluten that can be obtained by deamidation. Current analytical methods dedicated to gluten detection failed to detect deamidated gluten. After immunizing mice with the peptide LQPEEPFPE conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, five mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and sequences of bound epitopes were determined as XPXEPFPE, where X is Q or E. The mAbs exhibited high specificity for deamidated gliadins and low molecular weight glutenin subunits. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on INRA-DG1 mAb was developed with an IC50% of 85 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 25 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (CV) were <10% except for the interassay CV of the low-level control (40 ng/mL), which was 20%. This assay was capable of detecting three of the four deamidated gluten samples spiked in rice flour at 20 mg/kg.
Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content.
Canonico, L., Agarbati, A., Comitini, F. & Ciani, M. (2016). Food microbiology, 56, 45-51.
Nowadays, consumers require fermented alcoholic beverages with particular and enhanced flavour profiles while avoiding the health concerns due to high ethanol content. Here, the use of Torulaspora delbrueckii was evaluated for beer production, in both pure and in mixed cultures with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain (US-05). The yeast interactions were also evaluated. In mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae, the main analytical characters from T. delbrueckii were comparable with those of the S. cerevisiae starter strain, but the beers were characterized by a distinctive overall analytical and aromatic profile. Indeed, there were interactions between S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii, with enhanced ethyl hexanoate (0.048 mg l-1) and ethyl octaonate (0.014 mg l-1) levels at the 1:20 and 1:10 inoculation ratios, respectively; while phenyl ethyl acetate increased in all mix combinations. The presence of T. delbrueckii resulted in reduced β-phenyl ethanol and isoamyl acetate levels, which are responsible for floral and fruity aromas, respectively. Beer produced with T. delbrueckii pure cultures had a low alcohol content (2.66%; v/v), while also showing a particularly analytical and aromatic profile.
Designing and creating Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids for improved, industry relevant, phenotypes.
Bellon, J. R., Yang, F., Day, M. P., Inglis, D. L. & Chambers, P. J. (2015). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99(20), 8597-8609.
To remain competitive in increasingly overcrowded markets, yeast strain development programmes are crucial for fermentation-based food and beverage industries. In a winemaking context, there are many yeast phenotypes that stand to be improved. For example, winemakers endeavouring to produce sweet dessert wines wrestle with fermentation challenges particular to fermenting high-sugar juices, which can lead to elevated volatile acidity levels and extended fermentation times. In the current study, we used natural yeast breeding techniques to generate Saccharomyces spp. interspecific hybrids as a non-genetically modified (GM) strategy to introduce targeted improvements in important, wine-relevant traits. The hybrids were generated by mating a robust wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a wine isolate of Saccharomyces bayanus, a species previously reported to produce wines with low concentrations of acetic acid. Two hybrids generated from the cross showed robust fermentation properties in high-sugar grape juice and produced botrytised Riesling wines with much lower concentrations of acetic acid relative to the industrial wine yeast parent. The hybrids also displayed suitability for icewine production when bench-marked against an industry standard icewine yeast, by delivering icewines with lower levels of acetic acid. Additionally, the hybrid yeast produced wines with novel aroma and flavour profiles and established that choice of yeast strain impacts on wine colour. These new hybrid yeasts display the desired targeted fermentation phenotypes from both parents, robust fermentation in high-sugar juice and the production of wines with low volatile acidity, thus establishing their suitability for wine styles that are traditionally troubled by excessive volatile acidity levels.
Modulation and modeling of monoclonal antibody N‐linked glycosylation in mammalian cell perfusion reactors.
Karst, D. J., Scibona, E., Serra, E., Bielser, J. M., Souquet, J., Stettler, M., Broly, H., Soos, M., Morbidelli, M. & Villiger, T. K. (2017). Biotechnology and Bioengineering, In Press.
Mammalian cell perfusion cultures are gaining renewed interest as an alternative to traditional fed-batch processes for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The steady state operation at high viable cell density allows the continuous delivery of antibody product with increased space-time yield and reduced in-process variability of critical product quality attributes (CQA). In particular, the production of a confined mAb N-linked glycosylation pattern has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy and bioactivity. In this study, we show that accurate control of flow rates, media composition and cell density of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell perfusion bioreactor allowed the production of a constant glycosylation profile for over 20 days. Steady state was reached after an initial transition phase of six days required for the stabilization of extra- and intracellular processes. The possibility to modulate the glycosylation profile was further investigated in a Design of Experiment (DoE), at different viable cell density and media supplement concentrations. This strategy was implemented in a sequential screening approach, where various steady states were achieved sequentially during one culture. It was found that, whereas high ammonia levels reached at high VCD values inhibited the processing to complex glycan structures, the supplementation of either galactose or manganese as well as their synergy significantly increased the proportion of complex forms. The obtained experimental data set was used to compare the reliability of a statistical response surface model to a mechanistic model of N-linked glycosylation. The latter outperformed the response surface predictions with respect to its capability and reliability in predicting the system behavior (i.e. glycosylation pattern) outside the experimental space covered by the DoE design used for the model parameter estimation. Therefore, we can conclude that the modulation of glycosylation in a sequential steady state approach in combination with mechanistic model represents an efficient and rational strategy to develop continuous processes with desired N-linked glycosylation patterns.
Structure of protein emulsion in food impacts intestinal microbiota, caecal luminal content composition and distal intestine characteristics in rats.
Beaumont, M., Jaoui, D., Douard, V., Mat, D., Koeth, F., Goustard, B., Mayeur, C., Mondot, S., Hovaghimian, A., Feunteun, S. L., Chaumontet, C., Davila, A., Tomé, D., Souchon, I., Michon, C., Fromentin, G., Blachier, F. & Leclerc, M. (2017). Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, In press.
Scope: Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. Methods and results: Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion. LFE diet led to higher abundance, when compared to the GCE, of Lactobacillaceae (Lactobacillus reuteri) in the ileum, higher β-diversity of the caecum mucus-associated bacteria. In contrast, the LFE diet led to a decrease in Akkermansia municiphila in the caecum. This coincided with heavier caecum content and higher amount of isovalerate in the LFE group. LFE diet induced an increased expression of i) amino acid transporters in the ileum ii) glucagon in the caecum, together with an elevated level of GLP-1 in portal plasma. However, these intestinal effects were not associated with modification of food intake or body weight gain. Conclusion: Overall, the structure of protein emulsion in food affects the expression of amino acid transporters and gut peptides concomitantly with modification of the gut microbiota composition and activity. Our data suggest that these effects of the emulsion structure are the result of a modification of protein digestion properties.
Effect of aspartic acid and glutamate on metabolism and acid stress resistance of Acetobacter pasteurianus.
Yin, H., Zhang, R., Xia, M., Bai, X., Mou, J., Zheng, Y. & Wang, M. (2017). Microbial Cell Factories, 16(1), 109.
Background: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely applied in food, bioengineering and medicine fields. However, the acid stress at low pH conditions limits acetic acid fermentation efficiency and high concentration of vinegar production with AAB. Therefore, how to enhance resistance ability of the AAB remains as the major challenge. Amino acids play an important role in cell growth and cell survival under severe environment. However, until now the effects of amino acids on acetic fermentation and acid stress resistance of AAB have not been fully studied. Results: In the present work the effects of amino acids on metabolism and acid stress resistance of Acetobacter pasteurianus were investigated. Cell growth, culturable cell counts, acetic acid production, acetic acid production rate and specific production rate of acetic acid of A. pasteurianus revealed an increase of 1.04, 5.43, 1.45, 3.30 and 0.79-folds by adding aspartic acid (Asp), and cell growth, culturable cell counts, acetic acid production and acetic acid production rate revealed an increase of 0.51, 0.72, 0.60 and 0.94-folds by adding glutamate (Glu), respectively. For a fully understanding of the biological mechanism, proteomic technology was carried out. The results showed that the strengthening mechanism mainly came from the following four aspects: (1) Enhancing the generation of pentose phosphates and NADPH for the synthesis of nucleic acid, fatty acids and glutathione (GSH) throughout pentose phosphate pathway. And GSH could protect bacteria from low pH, halide, oxidative stress and osmotic stress by maintaining the viability of cells through intracellular redox equilibrium; (2) Reinforcing deamination of amino acids to increase intracellular ammonia concentration to maintain stability of intracellular pH; (3) Enhancing nucleic acid synthesis and reparation of impaired DNA caused by acid stress damage; (4) Promoting unsaturated fatty acids synthesis and lipid transport, which resulted in the improvement of cytomembrane fluidity, stability and integrity. Conclusions: The present work is the study to show the effectiveness of Asp and Glu on metabolism and acid stress resistance of A. pasteurianus as well as their working mechanism. The research results will be helpful for development of nutrient salts, the optimization and regulation of high concentration of cider vinegar production process.
Torulaspora delbrueckii contribution in mixed brewing fermentations with different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.
Canonico, L., Comitini, F. & Ciani, M. (2017). International Journal of Food Microbiology, 259, 7-13.
In recent years, there has been growing demand for distinctive high quality beer. Fermentation management has a fundamental role in beer quality and the levels of aroma compounds. Use of non-conventional yeast has been proposed to enhance beer bioflavor. In the present work we investigated mixed fermentations using three commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, without and with addition of a selected Torulaspora delbrueckii strain evaluating their interactions, as well as the aroma profiles. At the S. cerevisiae/T. delbrueckiico-inoculation ratio of 1:20, viable cell counts indicated that T. delbrueckii dominated all of the three combinations. In the mixed fermentations, T. delbrueckii provided higher levels of higher alcohols (excepting of β-phenyl ethanol), in contrast to data obtained in winemaking, where higher alcohols had lower levels. Moreover, mixed fermentations showed significantly higher ethyl acetate (from 5 to 16 mg/L) and isoamyl acetate (from 0.019 to 0.128 mg/L), and were generally lower in ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Therefore, irrespective of S. cerevisiae strain, T. delbrueckii influenced on all mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the mixed fermentations were also affected by each of the three S. cerevisiae strains, which resulted in beers with distinctive flavors.