Developmental complexity of arabinan polysaccharides and their processing in plant cell walls.
Verhertbruggen, Y., Marcus, S. E., Haeger, A., Verhoef, R., Schols, H. A., McCleary, B. V., McKee, L., Gilbert, H. J. & Knox, J. P. (2009). The Plant Journal, 59(3), 413-425.
Plant cell walls are constructed from a diversity of polysaccharide components. Molecular probes directed to structural elements of these polymers are required to assay polysaccharide structures in situ, and to determine polymer roles in the context of cell wall biology. Here, we report on the isolation and the characterization of three rat monoclonal antibodies that are directed to 1,5-linked arabinans and related polymers. LM13, LM16 and LM17, together with LM6, constitute a set of antibodies that can detect differing aspects of arabinan structures within cell walls. Each of these antibodies binds strongly to isolated sugar beet arabinan samples in ELISAs. Competitive-inhibition ELISAs indicate the antibodies bind differentially to arabinans with the binding of LM6 and LM17 being effectively inhibited by short oligoarabinosides. LM13 binds preferentially to longer oligoarabinosides, and its binding is highly sensitive to arabinanase action, indicating the recognition of a longer linearized arabinan epitope. In contrast, the binding of LM16 to branched arabinan and to cell walls is increased by arabinofuranosidase action. The presence of all epitopes can be differentially modulated in vitro using glycoside hydrolase family 43 and family 51 arabinofuranosidases. In addition, the LM16 epitope is sensitive to the action of β-galactosidase. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicates that the antibodies can be used to detect epitopes in cell walls, and that the four antibodies reveal complex patterns of epitope occurrence that vary between organs and species, and relate both to the probable processing of arabinan structural elements and the differing mechanical properties of cell walls.
Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
Heterologous expression and characterization of α-L-arabinofuranosidase 4 from Penicillium purpurogenum and comparison with the other isoenzymes produced by the fungus.
Ravanal, M. C. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2015). Fungal Biology, 119(7), 641-647.
Penicillium purpurogenum secretes at least four arabinofuranosidases. In this work, the gene of α-L-arabinofuranosidase 4 (ABF4) has been sequenced and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1521 pb long, has no introns and codes for a protein of 506 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 26 residues. Mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 55.4 kDa, shows 77% identity with α-L-arabinofuranosidase 1 from P. purpurogenum and belongs to family 54 of the glycosyl hydrolases. Purified enzyme has a molecular mass near 68 kDa, is active on p-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactofuranoside, and follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics with KM of 1.58 ± 0.13 mM and 5.3 ± 1.18 mM, respectively. The pH optimum is 4.6 and optimal temperature is 50°C. The enzyme is active on sugar beet arabinan and wheat flour arabinoxylan but does not act on short arabinooligosaccharides or debranched arabinan. It shows synergistic effect on arabinose liberation from wheat arabinoxylan when combined with endoxylanase from P. purpurogenum. The properties of ABF4 have been compared with those of the other arabinofuranosidases produced by the fungus. P. purpurogenum is the first fungus possessing four biochemically characterized arabinofuranosidases. The availability of four different ABFs may be valuable for biotechnological applications.
Heterologous expression of a Penicillium purpurogenum exo-arabinanase in Pichia pastoris and its biochemical characterization.
Mardones, W., Callegari, E. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2015). Fungal biology, 119(12), 1267-1278.
Arabinan is a component of pectin, which is one of the polysaccharides present in lignocelluose. The enzymes degrading the main chain of arabinan are the endo- (EC 22.214.171.124) and exo-arabinanases (3.2.1.-). Only three exo-arabinanases have been biochemically characterized; they belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 93. In this work, the cDNA of an exo-arabinanase (Arap2) from Penicillium purpurogenum has been heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1310 bp long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 380 amino acid residues; the mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 39 823 Da. The heterologously expressed Arap2 has a molecular mass in the range of 60-80 kDa due to heterogeneous glycosylation. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan with optimum pH of 4-5.5 and optimal temperature of 40°C, and has an exo-type action mode, releasing arabinobiose from its substrates. The expression profile of arap2 in corncob and sugar beet pulp follows a different pattern and is not related to the presence of arabinan. This is the first exo-arabinanase studied from P. purpurogenum and the first expressed in yeast. The availability of heterologous Arap2 may be useful for biotechnological applications requiring acidic conditions.
Identification and characterization of the first β-1,3-D-xylosidase from a gram-positive bacterium, Streptomyces sp. SWU10.
Phuengmaung, P., Fujiwara, D., Sukhumsirichart, W. & Sakamoto, T. (2017). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, In Press.
In previous reports, we characterized four endo-xylanases produced by Streptomyces sp. strain SWU10 that degrade xylans to several xylooligosaccharides. To obtain a set of enzymes to achieve complete xylan degradation, a β-D-xylosidase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein, named rSWU43A, was characterized. SWU43A is composed of 522 amino acids and does not contain a signal peptide, indicating that the enzyme is an intracellular protein. SWU43A was revealed to contain a Glyco_hydro_43 domain and possess the three conserved amino acid residues of the glycoside hydrolase family 43 proteins. The molecular mass of rSWU43A purified by Ni-affinity column chromatography was estimated to be 60 kDa. The optimum reaction conditions of rSWU43A were pH 6.5 and 40 C. The enzyme was stable up to 40°C over a wide pH range (3.1-8.9). rSWU43A activity was enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+ and inhibited by various metals (Ag+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+), D-xylose, and L-arabinose. rSWU43A showed activity on p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside substrates, with specific activities of 0.09 and 0.06 U/mg, respectively, but not on any xylosidic or arabinosidic polymers. rSWU43A efficiently degraded β-1,3-xylooligosaccharides to produce xylose but showed little activity towards β-1,4-xylobiose, with specific activities of 1.33 and 0.003 U/mg, respectively. These results demonstrate that SWU43A is a β-1,3-D-xylosidase (EC 126.96.36.199), which to date has only been described in the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Therefore, rSWU43A of Streptomyces sp. is the first β-1,3-xylosidase found in gram-positive bacteria. SWU43A could be useful as a specific tool for the structural elucidation and production of xylose from β-1,3-xylan in seaweed cell walls.