Developmental complexity of arabinan polysaccharides and their processing in plant cell walls.
Verhertbruggen, Y., Marcus, S. E., Haeger, A., Verhoef, R., Schols, H. A., McCleary, B. V., McKee, L., Gilbert, H. J. & Knox, J. P. (2009). The Plant Journal, 59(3), 413-425.
Plant cell walls are constructed from a diversity of polysaccharide components. Molecular probes directed to structural elements of these polymers are required to assay polysaccharide structures in situ, and to determine polymer roles in the context of cell wall biology. Here, we report on the isolation and the characterization of three rat monoclonal antibodies that are directed to 1,5-linked arabinans and related polymers. LM13, LM16 and LM17, together with LM6, constitute a set of antibodies that can detect differing aspects of arabinan structures within cell walls. Each of these antibodies binds strongly to isolated sugar beet arabinan samples in ELISAs. Competitive-inhibition ELISAs indicate the antibodies bind differentially to arabinans with the binding of LM6 and LM17 being effectively inhibited by short oligoarabinosides. LM13 binds preferentially to longer oligoarabinosides, and its binding is highly sensitive to arabinanase action, indicating the recognition of a longer linearized arabinan epitope. In contrast, the binding of LM16 to branched arabinan and to cell walls is increased by arabinofuranosidase action. The presence of all epitopes can be differentially modulated in vitro using glycoside hydrolase family 43 and family 51 arabinofuranosidases. In addition, the LM16 epitope is sensitive to the action of β-galactosidase. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicates that the antibodies can be used to detect epitopes in cell walls, and that the four antibodies reveal complex patterns of epitope occurrence that vary between organs and species, and relate both to the probable processing of arabinan structural elements and the differing mechanical properties of cell walls.
Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
Generation of a monoclonal antibody specific to (1→5)-α-L-arabinan.
Willats, W. G. T., Marcus, S. E. & Knox, J. P. (1998). Carbohydrate Research, 308(1), 149-152.
A neoglycoprotein (a heptasaccharide of (1→5)-α-L-linked-arabinosyl residues linked to bovine serum albumin) has been used to generate a rat monoclonal antibody specific to a linear chain of (1→5)-α-L-arabinan which is a structural feature of the side chains of pectins. The antibody, designated LM6, detected 100 ng of debranched sugar beet arabinan in an immunodot binding assay and 1 µg of commercial citrus pectin in a similar assay. Hapten inhibition studies indicated that the antibody recognized 5–6 Ara residues and 50% inhibition of antibody binding in a competitive inhibition ELISA was achieved with ca. 2 ng (21 nM) of (1→5)-α-L-Arabinohexaose. The antibody will be useful for the localization of arabinans in plant tissue and will have uses in the analyses of pectin structure. We report here on the localization of the arabinan epitope in lemon fruits using tissue printing.
Characterization of a family 54 α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Aureobasidium pullulans.
De Wet, B. J. M., Matthew, M. K. A., Storbeck, K. H., Van Zyl, W. H. & Prior, B. A. (2008). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 77(5), 975-983.
A glycosyl hydrolase family 54 (GH54) α-L-arabinofuranosidase gene (abfA) of Aureobasidium pullulans was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA and a 498-amino-acid open reading frame deduced from the DNA sequence. Modeling of the highly conserved A. pullulans AbfA protein sequence on the crystal structure of Aspergillus kawachii AkabfB showed that the catalytic amino acid arrangement and overall structure were highly similar including the N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal arabinose binding domains. The abfA gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the heterologous enzyme was purified. The protein was monomeric, migrating at 49 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and eluting at 36 kDa upon gel filtration. AbfA showed maximal activity at 55°C and between pH 3.5 and pH 4. The enzyme had a Km value for p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside of 3.7 mM and a Vmax of 34.8 µmol min-1 mg protein-1. Arabinose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 38.4 mM. The enzyme released arabinose from maize fiber, oat spelt arabinoxylan, and wheat arabinoxylan, but not from larch wood arabinogalactan or α-1,5-debranched arabinan. AbfA displayed low activity against α-1,5-L-arabino-oligosaccharides. The enzyme acted synergistically with endo-β-1,4-xylanase in the breakdown of wheat arabinoxylan. Binding of AbfA to xylan from several sources confirmed the presence of a functional carbohydrate-binding module.
Molecular cloning of a bifunctional β-xylosidase/α-L-arabinosidase from alfalfa roots: heterologous expression in Medicago truncatula and substrate specificity of the purified enzyme.
Xiong, J. S., Balland-Vanney, M., Xie, Z. P., Schultze, M., Kondorosi, A., Kondorosi, E. & Staehelin, C. (2007). Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(11), 2799-2810.
Glycoside hydrolases are often members of a multigene family, suggesting individual roles for each isoenzyme. Various extracellular glycoside hydrolases have an important but poorly understood function in remodelling the cell wall during plant growth. Here, MsXyl1, a concanavalin A-binding protein from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 (β-D-xylosidase branch) is characterized. Transcripts of MsXyl1 were detected in roots (particularly root tips), root nodules, and flowers. MsXyl1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter was expressed in the model legume Medicago truncatula (Gaertner). Concanavalin A-binding proteins from the transgenic plants exhibited 5–8-fold increased activities towards three p-nitrophenyl (PNP) glycosides, namely PNP-β-D-xyloside, PNP-α-L-arabinofuranoside, and PNP-α-L-arabinopyranoside. An antiserum raised against a synthetic peptide recognized MsXyl1, which was processed to a 65 kDa form. To characterize the substrate specificity of MsXyl1, the recombinant protein was purified from transgenic M. truncatula leaves by concanavalin A and anion chromatography. MsXyl1 cleaved β-1,4-linked D-xylo-oligosaccharides and α-1,5-linked L-arabino-oligosaccharides. Arabinoxylan (from wheat) and arabinan (from sugar beet) were substrates for MsXyl1, whereas xylan (from oat spelts) was resistant to degradation. Furthermore, MsXyl1 released xylose and arabinose from cell wall polysaccharides isolated from alfalfa roots. These data suggest that MsXyl1 is a multifunctional β-xylosidase/α-L-arabinofuranosidase/α-L-arabinopyranosidase implicated in cell wall turnover of arabinose and xylose, particularly in rapidly growing root tips. Moreover, the findings of this study demonstrate that stable transgenic M. truncatula plants serve as an excellent expression system for purification and characterization of proteins.
A Novel α-L-Arabinofuranosidase of Family 43 Glycoside Hydrolase (Ct43Araf) from Clostridium thermocellum.
Ahmed, S., Luis, A. S., Bras, J. L. A., Ghosh, A., Gautam, S., Gupta, M. N., Fontes. C. M. G. A. & Goyal, A. (2013). PloS one, 8(9), e73575.
The study describes a comparative analysis of biochemical, structural and functional properties of two recombinant derivatives from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 belonging to family 43 glycoside hydrolase. The family 43 glycoside hydrolase encoding α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Ct43Araf) displayed an N-terminal catalytic module CtGH43 (903 bp) followed by two carbohydrate binding modules CtCBM6A (405 bp) and CtCBM6B (402 bp) towards the C-terminal. Ct43Araf and its truncated derivative CtGH43 were cloned in pET-vectors, expressed in Escherichia coli and functionally characterized. The recombinant proteins displayed molecular sizes of 63 kDa (Ct43Araf) and 34 kDa (CtGH43) on SDS-PAGE analysis. Ct43Araf and CtGH43 showed optimal enzyme activities at pH 5.7 and 5.4 and the optimal temperature for both was 50°C. Ct43Araf and CtGH43 showed maximum activity with rye arabinoxylan 4.7 Umg-1 and 5.0 Umg-1, respectively, which increased by more than 2-fold in presence of Ca+2 and Mg+2 salts. This indicated that the presence of CBMs (CtCBM6A and CtCBM6B) did not have any effect on the enzyme activity. The thin layer chromatography and high pressure anion exchange chromatography analysis of Ct43Araf hydrolysed arabinoxylans (rye and wheat) and oat spelt xylan confirmed the release of L-arabinose. This is the first report of α-L-arabinofuranosidase from C. thermocellum having the capacity to degrade both p-nitrophenol-α-L-arabinofuranoside and p-nitrophenol-α-L-arabinopyranoside. The protein melting curves of Ct43Araf and CtGH43 demonstrated that CtGH43 and CBMs melt independently. The presence of Ca+2 ions imparted thermal stability to both the enzymes. The circular dichroism analysis of CtGH43 showed 48% β-sheets, 49% random coils but only 3% α-helices.
Heterologous expression of a Penicillium purpurogenum exo-arabinanase in Pichia pastoris and its biochemical characterization.
Mardones, W., Callegari, E. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2015). Fungal Biology, 119(12), 1267-1278.
Arabinan is a component of pectin, which is one of the polysaccharides present in lignocelluose. The enzymes degrading the main chain of arabinan are the endo- (EC 18.104.22.168) and exo-arabinanases (3.2.1.-). Only three exo-arabinanases have been biochemically characterized; they belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 93. In this work, the cDNA of an exo-arabinanase (Arap2) from Penicillium purpurogenum has been heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1310 bp long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 380 amino acid residues; the mature protein has a calculated molecular mass of 39 823 Da. The heterologously expressed Arap2 has a molecular mass in the range of 60–80 kDa due to heterogeneous glycosylation. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan with optimum pH of 4-5.5 and optimal temperature of 40°C, and has an exo-type action mode, releasing arabinobiose from its substrates. The expression profile of arap2 in corncob and sugar beet pulp follows a different pattern and is not related to the presence of arabinan. This is the first exo-arabinanase studied from P. purpurogenum and the first expressed in yeast. The availability of heterologous Arap2 may be useful for biotechnological applications requiring acidic conditions.