Preparation of arabinoxylobiose from rye xylan using family 10 Aspergillus aculeatus endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase.
Rantanen, H., Virkki, L., Tuomainen, P., Kabel, M., Schols, H. & Tenkanen, M. (2007). Carbohydrate Polymers, 68(2), 350-359.
Commercial xylanase preparation Shearzyme®, which contains the glycoside hydrolase family 10 endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase from Aspergillus aculeatus, was used to prepare short-chain arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) from rye arabinoxylan (AX). A major AXOS was formed as a hydrolysis product. Longer AXOS were also produced as minor products. The pure GH10 xylanase from A. aculeatus was used as a comparison to ensure that the formed AXOS were consequence of the endoxylanase‘s function instead of some side enzymes present in Shearzyme. The major AXOS was purified and the structure confirmed with various analysis methods (TLC, HPAEC-PAD, MALDI-TOF-MS, and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy with nano-probe) as α-L-Araf-(1→3)-β-D-Xylp-(1→4)-D-Xylp (arabinoxylobiose). This is the first report on 13C NMR data of pure arabinoxylobiose. The yield of arabinoxylobiose was 12% from the quantified hydrolysis products. In conclusion, GH10 endoxylanase from A. aculeatus is thus able to cut efficiently the xylosidic linkage next to the arabinofuranosyl-substituted xylose unit which is not typical for all the GH10 endoxylanases. Interestingly, pure A. aculeatus xylanase showed notably activity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-D xylopyranose. In previously studies longer AXOS have been produced with Shearzyme but the formation of short-chain AXOS by A. aculeatus GH10 xylanase has not been studied before.
Xylooligosaccharides from hardwood and cereal xylans produced by a thermostable xylanase as carbon sources for Lactobacillus brevis and Bifidobacterium adolescentis.
Falck, P., Precha-Atsawanan, S., Grey, C., Immerzeel, P., Stalbrand, H., Adlercreutz, P., & Nordberg Karlsson, E. (2013). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(30), 7333-7340.
To compare xylans from forestry with agricultural origins, hardwood xylan (birch) and cereal arabinoxylan (rye) were hydrolyzed using two variants of the xylanase RmXyn10A, full-length enzyme and catalytic module only, from Rhodothermus marinus. Cultivations of four selected bacterial species, using the xylooligosaccharide (XOS) containing hydrolysates as carbon source, showed selective growth of Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 1264 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703. Both strains were confirmed to utilize the XOS fraction (DP 2–5), whereas putative arabinoxylooligosaccharides from the rye arabinoxylan hydrolysate were utilized by only B. adolescentis. Escherichia coli did not grow, despite its capability to grow on the monosaccharides arabinose and xylose. It was also shown that Pediococcus parvulus strain 2.6 utilized neither xylose nor XOS for growth. In summary, RmXyn10A or its catalytic module proved suitable for high-temperature hydrolysis of hardwood xylan and cereal arabinoxylan, producing XOS that could qualify as prebiotics for use in functional food products.
Understanding how noncatalytic carbohydrate binding modules can display specificity for xyloglucan.
Luís, A. S., Venditto, I., Temple, M. J., Rogowski, A., Baslé, A., Xue, J., Knox, J. P., Prates, J. A. M., Ferreira, L. M. A., Fontes, C. M. G. A., Najmudin, S. & Gilbert, H. J. (2013). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(7), 4799-4809.
Plant biomass is central to the carbon cycle and to environmentally sustainable industries exemplified by the biofuel sector. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes generally contain noncatalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) that fulfil a targeting function, which enhances catalysis. CBMs that bind β-glucan chains often display broad specificity recognizing β1,4-glucans (cellulose), β1,3-β1,4-mixed linked glucans and xyloglucan, a β1,4-glucan decorated with α-1,6-xylose residues, by targeting structures common to the three polysaccharides. Thus, CBMs that recognize xyloglucan target the β1,4-glucan backbone and only accommodate the xylose decorations. Here we show that two closely related CBMs, CBM65A and CBM65B, derived from EcCel5A, a Eubacterium cellulosolvens endoglucanase, bind to a range of β-glucans but, uniquely, display significant preference for xyloglucan. The structures of the two CBMs reveal a β-sandwich fold. The ligand binding site comprises the β-sheet that forms the concave surface of the proteins. Binding to the backbone chains of β-glucans is mediated primarily by five aromatic residues that also make hydrophobic interactions with the xylose side chains of xyloglucan, conferring the distinctive specificity of the CBMs for the decorated polysaccharide. Significantly, and in contrast to other CBMs that recognize β-glucans, CBM65A utilizes different polar residues to bind cellulose and mixed linked glucans. Thus, Gln106 is central to cellulose recognition, but is not required for binding to mixed linked glucans. This report reveals the mechanism by which β-glucan-specific CBMs can distinguish between linear and mixed linked glucans, and show how these CBMs can exploit an extensive hydrophobic platform to target the side chains of decorated β-glucans.
Peroxidase-mediated oxidative cross-linking and its potential to modify mechanical properties in water-soluble polysaccharide extracts and cereal grain residues.
Robertson, J. A., Faulds, C. B., Smith, A. C. & Waldron, K. W. (2008). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(5), 1720-1726.
Analysis of wheat bran and spent grain shows that concentrations of ferulate and diferulates offer considerable scope to modify the cross-linking of feruloylated polysaccharides and hence the mechanical properties of these residues. In solution ferulic acid (FA) can be readily polymerized by horseradish peroxidase, but when esterified to a polysaccharide, the profile of diferulates becomes restricted. This situation also exists in muro and suggests structural constraints may limit the availability of FA for cross-linking. At relatively low polysaccharide concentration, (~3%), steric restrictions were apparent in gels prepared using isolated polysaccharides. Mechanical properties such as swelling also appear to be fixed at these relatively low polysaccharide concentrations. This limits the potential to modify mechanical properties in muro through oxidoreductase activity. To modify mechanical properties such treatments will need to focus on increasing the “flexibility” of the cell wall matrix and the accessibility of enzymes to the cell wall matrix.
Restoration of mature etiolated cucumber hypocotyl cell wall susceptibility to expansin by pretreatment with fungal pectinases and EGTA in vitro.
Zhao, Q., Yuan, S., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhu, H. & Lu, C. (2008). Plant Physiology, 147(4), 1874-1885.
Mature plant cell walls lose their ability to expand and become unresponsive to expansin. This phenomenon is believed to be due to cross-linking of hemicellulose, pectin, or phenolic groups in the wall. By screening various hydrolytic enzymes, we found that pretreatment of nongrowing, heat-inactivated, basal cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls with pectin lyase (Pel1) from Aspergillus japonicus could restore reconstituted exogenous expansin-induced extension in mature cell walls in vitro. Recombinant pectate lyase A (PelA) and polygalacturonase (PG) from Aspergillus spp. exhibited similar capacity to Pel1. Pel1, PelA, and PG also enhanced the reconstituted expansin-induced extension of the apical (elongating) segments of cucumber hypocotyls. However, the effective concentrations of PelA and PG for enhancing the reconstituted expansin-induced extension were greater in the apical segments than in the basal segments, whereas Pel1 behaved in the opposite manner. These data are consistent with distribution of more methyl-esterified pectin in cell walls of the apical segments and less esterified pectin in the basal segments. Associated with the degree of esterification of pectin, more calcium was found in cell walls of basal segments compared to apical segments. Pretreatment of the calcium chelator EGTA could also restore mature cell walls' susceptibility to expansin by removing calcium from mature cell walls. Because recombinant pectinases do not hydrolyze other wall polysaccharides, and endoglucanase, xylanase, and protease cannot restore the mature wall's extensibility, we can conclude that the pectin network, especially calcium-pectate bridges, may be the primary factor that determines cucumber hypocotyl mature cell walls' unresponsiveness to expansin.
Characterization of Xyn30A and Axh43A of Bacillus licheniformis SVD1 identified by its genomic analysis.
Sakka, M., Tachino, S., Katsuzaki, H., van Dyk, J. S., Pletschke, B. I., Kimura, T. & Sakka, K. (2012). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 51(4), 193-199.
The genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis SVD1, that produces a cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic multienzyme complex, was partially determined, indicating that the glycoside hydrolase system of this strain is highly similar to that of B. licheniformis ATCC14580. All of the fifty-six genes encoding glycoside hydrolases identified in B. licheniformis ATCC14580 were conserved in strain SVD1. In addition, two new genes, xyn30A and axh43A, were identified in the B. licheniformis SVD1 genome. The xyn30A gene was highly similar to Bacillus subtilis subsp. Subtilis 168 xynC encoding for a glucuronoarabinoxylan endo-1,4-β-xylanase. Xyn30A, produced by a recombinant Escherichia coli, had high activity toward 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan but showed definite activity toward oat-spelt xylan and unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides. Recombinant Axh43A, consisting of a family-43 catalytic module of the glycoside hydrolases and a family-6 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), was an arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (α-L-arabinofuranosidase) classified as AXH-m23 and capable of releasing arabinosyl residues, which are linked to the C-2 or C-3 position of singly substituted xylose residues in arabinoxylan or arabinoxylan oligomers. The isolated CBM polypeptide had an affinity for soluble and insoluble xylans and removal of the CBM from Axh43A abolished the catalytic activity of the enzyme, indicating that the CBM plays an essential role in hydrolysis of arabinoxylan.
Family 42 carbohydrate-binding modules display multiple arabinoxylan-binding interfaces presenting different ligand affinities.
Ribeiro, T., Santos-Silva, T., Alves, V. D., Dias, F. M. V., Luís, A. S., Prates, J. A. M., Ferraira, L. M. A., Romao, M. J. & Fontes, C. M. G. A. (2010). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins and Proteomics, 1804(10), 2054-2062.
Enzymes that degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides display a modular architecture comprising a catalytic domain bound to one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). CBMs display considerable variation in primary structure and are grouped into 59 sequence-based families organized in the Carbohydrate-Active enZYme (CAZy) database. Here we report the crystal structure of CtCBM42A together with the biochemical characterization of two other members of family 42 CBMs from Clostridium thermocellum. CtCBM42A, CtCBM42B and CtCBM42C bind specifically to the arabinose side-chains of arabinoxylans and arabinan, suggesting that various cellulosomal components are targeted to these regions of the plant cell wall. The structure of CtCBM42A displays a beta-trefoil fold, which comprises 3 sub-domains designated as α, β and γ. Each one of the three sub-domains presents a putative carbohydrate-binding pocket where an aspartate residue located in a central position dominates ligand recognition. Intriguingly, the γ sub-domain of CtCBM42A is pivotal for arabinoxylan binding, while the concerted action of β and γ sub-domains of CtCBM42B and CtCBM42C is apparently required for ligand sequestration. Thus, this work reveals that the binding mechanism of CBM42 members is in contrast with that of homologous CBM13s where recognition of complex polysaccharides results from the cooperative action of three protein sub-domains presenting similar affinities.
Characterization of Ruminiclostridium josui arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, RjAxh43B, and RjAxh43B-containing xylanolytic complex.
Orita, T., Sakka, M., Kimura, T. & Sakka, K. (2017). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 104, 37-43.
A novel gene (axh43B) from Ruminiclostridium josui encoding a cellulosomal enzyme consisting of a catalytic module of subfamily GH43_10, a family-6 carbohydrate-binding module, and a dockerin module, was expressed using Escherichia coli. RjAxh43 B released only arabinose from arabinoxylan and 23,33-di-α-L-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, but not 32-α-L-arabinofuranosyl xylobiose or 23-α-L-arabinofuranosyl xylotriose, strongly suggesting that RjAxh43 B is an arabinoxylan α-L-1,3-arabinofuranohydrolase capable of cleaving α-1,3-linked arabinose residues of doubly arabinosylated xylan. When Axh43 B was mixed with the recombinant scaffolding protein RjCipA of R. josui at a molar ratio of 6:1, the activity of the RjAxh43B-RjCipA complex (6:1) toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan was similar to that of RjAxh43 B alone, suggesting that RjAxh43 B does not show a proximity effect, which is defined as an activity enhancement effect caused by the presence of plural catalytic subunits adjoining each other. When RjAxh43A was mixed with xylanase RjXyn10C, they acted synergistically toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan and rice straw powder in the absence of RjCipA. Furthermore, the RjAxh43B-RjXyn10C-RjCipA (3:3:3) complex had higher activity toward insoluble wheat arabinoxylan than a mixture of RjAxh43 B and RjXyn10C without RjCipA, suggesting that incorporation of a xylanase and an α-L-arabinofuranosidase into a cellulosome is beneficial for more efficiently degrading arabinoxylan.
Arabinoxylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 5 is a selective enzyme for production of specific arabinoxylooligosaccharides.
Falck, P., Linares-Pastén, J. A., Karlsson, E. N. & Adlercreutz, P. (2017). Food Chemistry, 242, 579-584.
An arabinose specific xylanase from glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) was used to hydrolyse wheat and rye arabinoxylan, and the product profile showed that it produced arabinose substituted oligosaccharides (AXOS) having 2-10 xylose residues in the main chain but no unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Molecular modelling showed that the active site has an open structure and that the hydroxyl groups of all xylose residues in the active site are solvent exposed, indicating that arabinose substituents can be accommodated in the glycone as well as the aglycone subsites. The arabinoxylan hydrolysates obtained with the GH5 enzyme stimulated growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis but not of Lactobacillus brevis. This arabinoxylanase is thus a good tool for the production of selective prebiotics.
Analyzing Xyloglucan Endotransglycosylases by Incorporation of Synthetic Oligosaccharides into Plant Cell Walls.
Ruprecht, C., Dallabernardina, P., Smith, P. J., Urbanowicz, B. R. & Pfrengle, F. (2018). ChemBioChem, In Press.
The plant cell wall is a cellular exoskeleton consisting predominantly of a complex polysaccharide network that defines the shape of cells. During growth, this network can be loosened through the action of Xyloglucan Endo-Transglycosylases (XETs), glycoside hydrolases that 'cut and paste' xyloglucan polysaccharides through a transglycosylation process. We have analyzed cohorts of XETs in different plant species to evaluate xyloglucan acceptor substrate specificities using a set of synthetic oligosaccharides obtained by automated glycan assembly. The ability of XETs to incorporate the oligosaccharides into polysaccharides printed as microarrays and into stem sections of Arabidopsis thaliana, beans, and peas was assessed. We found that single xylose substitutions are sufficient for transfer, and xylosylation of the terminal glucose residue is not required by XETs, independently of plant species. To obtain some information on the potential xylosylation pattern of the natural acceptor of XETs, i.e. the non-reducing end of xyloglucan, we further tested the activity of xyloglucan xylosyl transferase (XXT) 2 on the synthetic xyloglucan oligosaccharides. This data sheds light on inconsistencies between previous studies towards determining the acceptor substrate specificities of XETs and have important implications for further understanding plant cell wall polysaccharide synthesis and remodeling.
Mechanisms of utilisation of arabinoxylans by a porcine faecal inoculum: competition and co-operation.
Feng, G., Flanagan, B. M., Mikkelsen, D., Williams, B. A., Yu, W., Gilbert, R. G. & Gidley, M. J. (2018). Scientific Reports, 8(1), 4546.
Recent studies show that a single or small number of intestinal microbes can completely degrade complex carbohydrates. This suggests a drive towards competitive utilisation of dietary complex carbohydrates resulting in limited microbial diversity, at odds with the health benefits associated with a diverse microbiome. This study investigates the enzymatic metabolism of wheat and rye arabinoxylans (AX) using in vitro fermentation, with a porcine faecal inoculum. Through studying the activity of AX-degrading enzymes and the structural changes of residual AX during fermentation, we show that the AX-degrading enzymes are mainly cell-associated, which enables the microbes to utilise the AX competitively. However, potential for cross-feeding is also demonstrated to occur by two distinct mechanisms: (1) release of AX after partial degradation by cell-associated enzymes, and (2) release of enzymes during biomass turnover, indicative of co-operative AX degradation. This study provides a model for the combined competitive-co-operative utilisation of complex dietary carbohydrates by gut microorganisms.