Measurement of dietary fibre components: the importance of enzyme purity, activity and specificity.
McCleary, B. V. (2001), “Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology”, (B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, Eds.), Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K., pp. 89-105.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival, thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. The term 'dietary fibre' first appeared in 1953, and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (Theandere/tf/. 1995). Trowell (1974) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term 'crude fibre'. Burkitt (1995) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent He observes that dietary fibre 'was first viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut', thus acquiring the designation 'roughage' - a term later replaced by 'crude fibre' and ultimately by 'dietary fibre'. Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due to the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon, etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (Mongeau et al. 1999). The principal components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides (which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses), and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes, with which they are associated in nature. In 1976, the definition of dietary fibre was modified to include gums and some pectic substances, based on the resistance to digestion of these components in the upper intestinal tract. For the purposes of labelling, Englyst et al. (1987) proposed that dietary fibre be defined as 'non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet that are not digested by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract'. Methods were concurrently developed to specifically measure NSP (Englyst et al. 1994).
Dietary fiber and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. C. (2007). “Dietary Fiber: An International Perspective for Harmonization of Health Benefits and Energy Values”, (Dennis T. Gordon and Toshinao Goda, Eds.), AACC International, Inc., pp. 31-59.
Debate continues on the definition of dietary fiber (DF), methods for measurement of DF, and methods for measurement of the carbohydrates that are readily hydrolyzed and absorbed in the human small intestine. Henneberg and Stahmann developed the 'Wende' proximate system for analysis of foods in 1860, and a set of values obtained using this method were published by Atwater and Bryant in 1900. This method is still in use in the USA for the measurement of total carbohydrate. In this procedure, total carbohydrate is measured by difference after deducting the moisture, protein, fat and ash from the total weight. Carbohydrate calculated in this way contains not only sugar and starch, but also the 'unavailable carbohydrate' of DF. However, there are a number of problems with this approach, as the 'by difference' figure includes a number of non-carbohydrate components such as lignin, organic acids, tannins, waxes and some Maillard products. In addition to this error, it combines all of the analytical errors from the other analyses (FAO 1997). A need for information on the carbohydrate composition of foods for diabetics prompted McCance and Lawrence (1929) to attempt to measure carbohydrate com¬position to gain results that would be of biological significance. They divided the carbohydrates in foods into two broad groups, 'available' and 'unavailable'. The available carbohydrates, that is, sugar plus starch, were defined as those that are digested and absorbed by man and are glucogenic. The unavailable carbohydrates were defined as those that are not digested by the endogenous secretions of the human digestive tract. In the mid 1920s, McCance obtained a grant of £30 per year from the Medical Research Council to analyse raw and cooked fruits and vegetables for total "available carbohydrate"; values needed for calculating diabetic diets.
Measuring dietary fibre.
McCleary, B. V. (1999). The World of Ingredients, 50-53.
Interest in dietary fibre is undergoing a dramatic revival thanks in part to the introduction of new carbohydrates as dietary fibre components. Much emphasis is being placed on determining how much fibre is present in a food. Linking a particular amount of fibre to a specific health benefit is now an important area of research. Total Dietary Fibre. The term “dietary fibre” first appeared in 1953 and referred to hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin (1). In 1974, Trowell (2) recommended this term as a replacement for the no longer acceptable term “crude fibre” Burkitt (3) has likened the interest in dietary fibre to the growth of a river from its first trickle to a mighty torrent. He observes that dietary fibre “was viewed as merely the less digestible constituent of food which exerts a laxative action by irritating the gut “thus acquiring the designation “roughage” a term which was later replaced by “crude fibre” and ultimately by “dietary fibre” Various definitions of dietary fibre have appeared over the years, partly due the various concepts used in deriving the term (i.e. origin of material, resistance to digestion, fermentation in the colon etc.), and partly to the difficulties associated with its measurement and labelling (4). The principle components of dietary fibre, as traditionally understood, are non-starch polysaccharides, which in plant fibre are principally hemicelluloses and celluloses, and the non-carbohydrate phenolic components, cutin, suberin and waxes with which they are associated in Nature.
Two issues in dietary fiber measurement.
McCleary, B. V. (2001). Cereal Foods World, 46(4), 164-165.
Enzyme activity and purity of these topics, the easiest to deal with is the importance of enzyme purity and activity. As a scientist actively involved in polysaccharide research over the past 25 years, I have come to appreciate the importance of enzyme purity and specificity in polysaccharide modification and measurement (7). These factors translate directly to dietary fiber (DF) methodology, because the major components of DF are carbohydrate polymers and oligomers. The committee report published in the March issue of Cereal FOODS WORLD refers only to the methodology for measuring enzyme purity and activity (8) that led up the AOAC method 985.29 (2). In this work enzyme purity was gauged by the lack of hydrolysis (i.e., complete recovery) of a particular DF component (e.g. β-glucan, larch galactan or citrus pectin). Enzyme activity was measured by the ability to completely hydrolyze representative starch and protein (namely wheat starch and casein). These requirements and restrictions on enzyme purity and activity were adequate at the time the method was initially developed and served as a useful working guide. However, it was recognized that there was a need for more stringent quality definitions and assay procedures for enzymes used in DF measurements.
Dietary fibre analysis.
McCleary, B. V. (2003). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 3-9.
The 'gold standard' method for the measurement of total dietary fibre is that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000; method 985.29). This procedure has been modified to allow measurement of soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, and buffers employed have been improved. However, the recognition of the fact that non-digestible oligosaccharides and resistant starch also behave physiologically as dietary fibre has necessitated a re-examination of the definition of dietary fibre, and in turn, a re-evaluation of the dietary fibre methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. With this realisation, the American Association of Cereal Chemists appointed a scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. It organised various workshops and accepted comments from interested parties worldwide through an interactive website. More recently, the (US) Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Health, National Academy of Sciences, under the oversight of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, assembled a panel to develop a proposed definition(s) of dietary fibre. Various elements of these definitions were in agreement, but not all. What was clear from both reviews is that there is an immediate need to re-evaluate the methods that are used for dietary fibre measurement and to make appropriate changes where required, and to find new methods to fill gaps. In this presentation, the 'state of the art' in measurement of total dietary fibre and dietary fibre components will be described and discussed, together with suggestions for future research.
Measurement of novel dietary fibres.
McCleary, B. V. & Rossiter, P. (2004). Journal of AOAC International, 87(3), 707-717.
With the recognition that resistant starch (RS) and nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) act physiologically as dietary fiber (DF), a need has developed for specific and reliable assay procedures for these components. The ability of AOAC DF methods to accurately measure RS is dependent on the nature of the RS being analyzed. In general, NDO are not measured at all by AOAC DF Methods 985.29 or 991.43, the one exception being the high molecular weight fraction of fructo-oligosaccharides. Values obtained for RS, in general, are not in good agreement with values obtained by in vitro procedures that more closely imitate the in vivo situation in the human digestive tract. Consequently, specific methods for the accurate measurement of RS and NDO have been developed and validated through interlaboratory studies. In this paper, modifications to AOAC fructan Method 999.03 to allow accurate measurement of enzymically produced fructo-oligosaccharides are described. Suggested modifications to AOAC DF methods to ensure complete removal of fructan and RS, and to simplify pH adjustment before amyloglucosidase addition, are also described.
An integrated procedure for the measurement of total dietary fibre (including resistant starch), non-digestible oligosaccharides and available carbohydrates.
McCleary, B. V. (2007). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(1), 291-308.
A method is described for the measurement of dietary fibre, including resistant starch (RS), non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) and available carbohydrates. Basically, the sample is incubated with pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase under conditions very similar to those described in AOAC Official Method 2002.02 (RS). Reaction is terminated and high molecular weight resistant polysaccharides are precipitated from solution with alcohol and recovered by filtration. Recovery of RS (for most RS sources) is in line with published data from ileostomy studies. The aqueous ethanol extract is concentrated, desalted and analysed for NDO by high-performance liquid chromatography by a method similar to that described by Okuma (AOAC Method 2001.03), except that for logistical reasons, D-sorbitol is used as the internal standard in place of glycerol. Available carbohydrates, defined as D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, the D-glucose component of lactose, maltodextrins and non-resistant starch, are measured as D-glucose plus D-fructose in the sample after hydrolysis of oligosaccharides with a mixture of sucrase/maltase plus β-galactosidase.
Development and evaluation of an integrated method for the measurement of total dietary fibre.
McCleary, B. V., Mills, C. & Draga, A. (2009). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(4), 213–224.
An integrated total dietary fibre (TDF) method, consistent with the recently accepted CODEX definition of dietary fibre, has been developed. The CODEX Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) has been deliberating for the past 8 years on a definition for dietary fibre that correctly reflects the current consensus thinking on what should be included in this definition. As this definition was evolving, it became evident to us that neither of the currently available methods for TDF (AOAC Official Methods 985.29 and 991.43), nor a combination of these and other methods, could meet these requirements. Consequently, we developed an integrated TDF procedure, based on the principals of AOAC Official Methods 2002.02, 991.43 and 2001.03, that is compliant with the new CODEX definition. This procedure quantitates high- and low-molecular weight dietary fibres as defined, giving an accurate estimate of resistant starch and non-digestible oligosaccharides also referred to as low-molecular weight soluble dietary fibre. In this paper, the method is discussed, modifications to the method to improve simplicity and reproducibility are described, and the results of the first rounds of interlaboratory evaluation are reported.
Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2010). Journal of AOAC International, 93(1), 221-233.
A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37°C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (SR) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.
Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (codex definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: Collaborative Study.
McCleary, B. V., DeVries, J. W., Rader, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford, D. C., Champ, M. & Okuma, K. (2012). Journal of AOAC International, 95(3), 824-844.
A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (sR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within-laboratory variability sr for SDF ranged from 0.28 to 1.03, and the between-laboratory variability sR for SDF ranged from 0.85 to 1.66. The within-laboratory variability sr for TDF ranged from 0.47 to 1.41, and the between-laboratory variability sR for TDF ranged from 0.95 to 3.14. This is comparable to other official and approved dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.
Measurement of total dietary fiber using AOAC method 2009.01 (AACC International approved method 32- 45.01): Evaluation and updates.
McCleary, B. V., Sloane, N., Draga, A. & Lazewska, I. (2013). Cereal Chemistry, 90(4), 396-414.
The Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling recently recommended 14 methods for measurement of dietary fiber, eight of these being type I methods. Of these type I methods, AACC International Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01) is the only procedure that measures all of the dietary fiber components as defined by Codex Alimentarius. Other methods such as the Prosky method (AACCI Approved Method 32-05.01) give similar analytical data for the high-molecular-weight dietary fiber contents of food and vegetable products low in resistant starch. In the current work, AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 has been modified to allow accurate measurement of samples high in particular fructooligosaccharides: for example, fructotriose, which, in the HPLC system used, chromatographs at the same point as disaccharides, meaning that it is currently not included in the measurement. Incubation of the resistant oligosaccharides fraction with sucrase/β-galactosidase removes disaccharides that interfere with the quantitation of this fraction. The dietary fiber value for resistant starch type 4 (RS4), varies significantly with different analytical methods, with much lower values being obtained with AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 than with 32-05.01. This difference results from the greater susceptibility of RS4 to hydrolysis by pancreatic α-amylase than by bacterial α-amylase, and also a greater susceptibility to hydrolysis at lower temperatures. On hydrolysis of samples high in starch in the assay format of AACCI Approved Method 32-45.01 (AOAC method 2009.01), resistant maltodextrins are produced. The major component is a heptasaccharide that is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most of the starch-degrading enzymes studied. However, it is hydrolyzed by the maltase/amyloglucosidase/isomaltase enzyme complex present in the brush border lining of the small intestine. As a consequence, AOAC methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 (AACCI Approved Methods 32-45.01 and 32-50.01, respectively) must be updated to include an additional incubation with amyloglucosidase to remove these oligosaccharides.
Modification to AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 to allow for minor overestimation of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber in samples containing starch.
McCleary, B. V. (2014). Journal of AOAC International, 97(3), 896-901.
AOAC Official Methods 2009.01 and 2011.25 have been modified to allow removal of resistant
maltodextrins produced on hydrolysis of various starches by the combination of pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) used in these assay procedures. The major resistant
maltodextrin, 63,65-di-α-D-glucosyl maltopentaose, is highly resistant to hydrolysis by microbial α-glucosidases, isoamylase, pullulanase, pancreatic, bacterial and fungal α-amylase and AMG. However, this oligosaccharide is hydrolyzed by the mucosal α-glucosidase complex of the pig small intestine (which is similar to the human small intestine), and thus must be removed in the analytical procedure. Hydrolysis of these oligosaccharides has been by incubation with a high concentration of a purified AMG at 60°C. This incubation results in no hydrolysis or loss of other resistant oligosaccharides such as FOS, GOS, XOS, resistant maltodextrins (e.g., Fibersol 2) or polydextrose. The effect of this additional incubation with AMG on the measured level of low molecular weight soluble dietary fiber (SDFS) and of total dietary fiber in a broad range of samples is reported. Results from this study demonstrate that the proposed modification can be used with confidence in the measurement of dietary fiber.
Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods.
Amagloh, F. K., Mutukumira, A. N., Brough, L., Weber, J. L., Hardacre, A. & Coad, J. (2013). Food & Nutrition Research, 57.
Background: Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objective: To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Method: The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results: The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion: The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that reduce the viscosity, increase the solubility, impart desirable sensory characteristics, and potentially avoid excessive energy and nutrient thinning.
High hydrostatic pressure influences antinutritional factors and in vitro protein digestibility of split peas and whole white beans.
Linsberger-Martin, G., Weiglhofer, K., Thi Phuong, T. P. & Berghofer, E. (2013). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 331-336.
Legumes are of high nutritional value but consumption is low in Western countries due to long processing and antinutritional factors. The development of convenience products can help to overcome these constraints. The present study investigated the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on oligosaccharides, phytic acid and total phenolic acid content, trypsin inhibitor activity and protein digestibility in peas and beans. Oligosaccharides were significantly reduced through pressurisation by up to 68% in peas and 48% in beans but reduction was lower than in cooked samples (max. 82% in peas and 80% in beans). Phytic acid was reduced by high pressure by up to 36% in peas and 11% in beans. Total phenolic acid content was reduced only in some pressurised peas and beans as compared to untreated peas and beans. Reduction of phytic acid (max. 48%) and total phenolic acids (max. 78%) through cooking was greater than through pressurisation. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by up to 100% in peas and 84% in beans during pressurisation. Protein digestibility increased by up to 4.3% in peas when treated at 600 MPa and 60°C regardless of time and by 8.7% in beans treated at 600 MPa at 60°C for 60 min.
Iron bioaccessibility and sensory analysis of extruded cereals fortified with different Fe sources.
Cagnasso, C. E., Calviño, A., López, L. B., Cellerino, K., Dyner, L., Binaghi, M. J., Rodriguez, V., Drago, S., Gonzalez, R. & Valencia, M. E. (2013). Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 1(4), 57-64.
To increase iron (Fe) intake in Fe deficiency-risk groups the combination of Fe source and food-vehicle must be chosen in order to minimize inhibitory effects of food matrix. Fe dialyzability and sensory properties were tested in six model systems (MS) made with extruded cereals fortified with different Fe sources such as FeNaEDTA, FeSO4 and EDTA/FeSO4 among others and with or without the addition of milk. Proximate composition and phytate content were also evaluated. Results showed that Fe dialyzability from samples fortified with FeNaEDTA was less affected by the presence of inhibitory factors such as phytates and milk. The addition of FeSO4 to the extrudates showed sensory differences. Furthermore, fortification with EDTA/FeSO4 or FeNaEDTA showed no sensory differences compared with unfortified or Fe° (elemental iron) fortified matrix, with the advantage of increased iron bioaccessibility.
Comparative study of colorectal health related compounds in different types of bread: Analysis of bread samples pre and post digestion in a batch fermentation model of the human intestine.
Hiller, B., Schlörmann, W., Glei, M. & Lindhauer, M. G. (2011). Food Chemistry, 125(4), 1202-1212.
Seven different types of wheat and rye bread were analysed for colorectal health related compounds, pre and post digestion, in batch fermentation model of the human intestine. Pre digestion, higher amounts of colorectal health-related dietary fibre compounds (soluble/insoluble/total dietary fibre, arabinoxylans, β-glucans) and phytochemicals (mono-/di-phenolic acids, phytic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural) were detected in wholemeal than in refined flour types of bread, as well as in rye flour types than in wheat flour types of bread. Post digestion, faecal bacterial metabolites of colorectal health promoting (acetate/propionate/butyrate, lactate, free mono-/di-phenolic acids) and impairing (amino metabolites, bile acid metabolites) activities were found in fermentation supernatants of bread samples. All types of bread positively affected faecal bacterial metabolism; among the different types of bread, the highest stimulation of organic acid production (acetate/propionate/butyrate, lactate) and the lowest detrimental bacterial enzyme activities (β-glucuronidase, urease) were detected for wheat flour bread, whereas the strongest retardation of bacterial bile acid degradation and the strongest stimulation of phenolic acid metabolite release (phenylpropionic/phenylpropenoic acid derivatives) were induced by wholemeal rye bread. This study for the first time presents a qualitative and quantitative overview over the broad spectrum of colorectal health related compounds in high- and low-fibre types of bread, pre and post in vitro digestion, and highlights the significance of bread for the preventive nutritional intervention of colorectal cancer.
The Glycemic Potential of White and Red Rice Affected by Oil Type and Time of Addition.
Kaur, B., Ranawana, V., Teh, A. L. & Henry, C. J. (2015). Journal of Food Science, 80(10), H2316-H2321.
Limited research exists on how different oil types and time of addition affect starch digestibility of rice. This study aimed to assess the starch digestibility of white and red rice prepared with 2 oil types: vegetable oil (unsaturated fat) and ghee (clarified butter, saturated fat) added at 3 different time points during the cooking process (“before”: frying raw rice in oil before boiling, “during”: adding oil during boiling, and “after”: stir-frying cooked rice in oil). Red rice produced a slower digestion rate than white rice. White rice digestibility was not affected by oil type, but was affected by addition time of oil. Adding oil “after” (stir-frying) to white or red rice resulted in higher slowly digestible starch. Red rice cooked using ghee showed the lowest amount of glucose release during in vitro digestion. The addition of ghee “during” (that is boiling with ghee) or “before” (that is frying rice raw with ghee then boiling) cooking showed potential for attenuating the postprandial glycemic response and increasing resistant starch content. This is the first report to show healthier ways of preparing rice. White rice with oil added “after” (stir-fried) may provide a source of sustained glucose and stabilize blood glucose levels. Boiling red rice with ghee or cooking red rice with ghee pilaf-style may provide beneficial effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations, and improve colonic health. The encouraging results of the present study justify extending it to an in vivo investigation to conclusively determine the effect of time of addition of fat when rice is cooked on blood glucose homeostasis.
Effects of bran size and carob seed flour of optimized bread formulas on glycemic responses in humans: A randomized clinical trial.
Papakonstantinou, E., Chaloulos, P., Papalexi, A. & Mandala, I. (2018). Journal of Functional Foods, 46, 345-355.
We investigated the glycemic-index (GI), glycemic-load (GL) and glycemic response to four breads produced by optimized formulas in terms of texture and structure: white bread (WB), bread enriched with coarse wheat bran (CB), with fine wheat bran (FB) and FB with 10% carob-seed flour (CSFB). Ten healthy individuals (24 ± 1 years; BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m2) received isoglucidic test meals (50 g available carbohydrate) and 50 g glucose reference, in random order. GI/GL was calculated and capillary blood glucose and salivary insulin samples were collected at 0-120 min after meal consumption. CB and CSFB provided medium-GI, low-GL. WB and FB provided high-GI, medium-GL. Peak glucose value was lower for CSFB (p = 0.03). Dough water content was inversely associated with GI (p = 0.03). No differences were observed between breads for fasting glucose, fasting and post-test-meal insulin concentrations. Larger bran particle size and flour substitution by carob-seed flour attenuated the glycemic response resulting in lower GI or GL breads.
Gluten-Free Bread Enriched with Vegetable Flours.
Saccotelli, M. A., Spinelli, S., Conte, A. & Del Nobile, M. A. (2018). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 9(04), 356.
The effects of different vegetable flours (broccoli, cauliflower, artichoke, fennel, zucchini and mushroom) added to gluten-free bread on sensory quality, antioxidant properties and glycemic response were assessed. Among the vegetable flours, the addition of fennel flour significantly improved sensory bread quality. Artichoke flour has the highest phenolic (26.51 ±1.92 mg/g dw) and flavonoid content (26.43 ± 1.93 mg/g dw). Even though the content of total phenol and flavonoids in vegetable flours was higher when compared to supplemented bread, the addition of artichoke and zucchini flours increased the total phenolic and flavonoid content and improved antioxidant activity. The incorporation of high level of vegetable flours (15%) also decreased the glycemic index of bread, in particular with artichoke and zucchini flours (59 ± 1.21 and 62 ± 0.49, respectively). To sum up, the results are very interesting because the addition of vegetable flours into gluten-free bread can improve nutritional and sensory properties of bread.