New chromogenic substrates for the assay of alpha-amylase and (1→4)-β-D-glucanase.
McCleary, B. V. (1980). Carbohydrate Research, 86(1), 97-104.
New chromogenic substrates have been developed for the quantitative assay of alpha-amylase and (1→4)-β-D-glucanase. These were prepared by chemically modifying amylose or cellulose before dyeing, to increase solubility. After dyeing, the substrates were either soluble or could be readily dispersed to form fine, gelatinous suspensions. Assays based on the use of these substrates are sensitive and highly specific for either alpha-amylase or (1→4)-β-D-glucanase. The method of preparation can also be applied to obtain substrates for other endo-hydrolases.
Degradation of cell wall materials from sweetpotato, cassava, and potato by a bacterial protopectinase and terminal sugar analysis of the resulting solubilized products.
Salvador, L. D., Suganuma, T., Kitahara, K., Fukushige, Y. & Tanoue, H. (2002). Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 93(1), 64-72.
Cell wall materials (CWMs) from sweetpotato, cassava, and potato starch residues were degraded using a crude enzyme solution from the culture filtrate of a Bacillus sp. isolated from soil, Bacillus sp. M4. This organism has been found to secrete polygalacturonic acid lyase (PGL) and glycan depolymerase activities, especially arabinanase, but cellulase activity was nearly absent. Sugar analysis of the solubilized product after enzyme treatment at pH 7.0 revealed that it is mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose, and arabinose, the sugars found commonly in the pectin fraction. This suggested the presence of a protopectinase (PPase) activity in the culture filtrate. The presence of EDTA completely inhibited PGL but PPase activity was almost retained, suggesting that the PGL is not the primary activity responsible for pectin solubilization. The mode of action of the crude enzyme was determined by terminal sugar analysis using HPAEC-PAD after hydrolysis of the reduced products. Results revealed that galactose is the main neutral sugar at the reducing terminal of the products, although rhamnose was also present in the higher molecular weight component. This suggested that at neutral pH, the primary activity in the culture filtrate of Bacillus sp. M4 is a B-type PPase, which attacked the galactan as well as rhamnogalacturonan moieties of the protopectin, resulting in the release of a soluble pectin fraction.
Direct ethanol production from rice straw by coculture with two high-performing fungi.
Takano, M. & Hoshino, K. (2012). Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering, 6(2), 139-145.
To develop efficient and economical direct ethanol production from fine rice straw crashed mechanically, two high-performing fungi, which can secret hyperactive cellulases and/or ferment effectively various sugars, were selected from some strains belong to Mucor circinelloides preserved in our laborator. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by coculture with these fungi was investigated. The screening of high performing fungi resulted in the selection of NBRC 4572 as an ethanol-producing fungus and NBRC 5398 as a cellulase-secreting fungus. The strain 4572 produced ethanol aerobically from glucose and xylose in high yields of 0.420 g/g at 36 h and 0.478 g/g at 60 h, respectively, but secreted fairly low cellulases. On the other hand, the strain 5398 also produced ethanol from glucose in yield of 0.340 g/g though it had a little growth in xylose culture. However, it secreted hyperactive cellulases that are essential for hydrolysis of rice straw in culture and the maximum activities of endo-β-glucanase and β-glucosidase were 2.11 U/L and 1.47 U/L, respectively. In SSF of rice straw by coculture with two fungi selected, the ethanol production reached 1.28 g/L after 96 h when the inoculation ratio of the strain 5398 to the strain 4572 was 9.
Sequencing and Expression of Additional Xylanase Genes from the Hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima FjSS3B. 1.
Reeves, R. A., Gibbs, M. D., Morris, D. D., Griffiths, K. R., Saul, D. J. & Bergquist, P. L. (2000). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(4), 1532-1537.
Two genes, xynB and xynC, coding for xylanases were isolated from Thermotoga maritima FjSS3B.1 by a genomic-walking–PCR technique. Sequencing of the genes showed that they encode multidomain family 10 xylanases. Only XynB exhibited activity against xylan substrates. The temperature optimum (87°C) and pH optimum (pH 6.5) of XynB are different from the previously reported xylanase, XynA (also a family 10 enzyme), from this organism. The catalytic domain expressed without other domains has a lower temperature optimum, is less thermostable, and has optimal activity at pH 6.5. Despite having a high level of sequence similarity to xynB, xynC appears to be nonfunctional since its encoded protein did not show significant activity on xylan substrates.
Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost.
Amore, A., Pepe, O., Ventorino, V., Birolo, L., Giangrande, C. & Faraco, V. (2012). Microbial Cell Factories, 11(1), 164-175.
Background: The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results: Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose following a Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a KM of 9.13 mg/ml and a vmax of 3469 µM min-1. The enzyme exhibits a half-life of around 24 h and 96 h at 60°C and 50°C, respectively and shows a retention of around 80% of activity after 96 h at 40°C. Conclusions: In this manuscript, we describe the isolation of a new cellulolytic strain, Streptomyces sp. G12, from industrial waste based compost, the identification of the enzymes putatively responsible for its cellulolytic activity, the cloning and the recombinant expression of the gene coding for the Streptomyces sp. G12 cellulase CelStrep, that was characterized showing to exhibit a relevant thermoresistance increasing its potential for cellulose conversion.