New glycosidase substrates for droplet-based microfluidic screening.
Najah, M., Mayot, E., Mahendra-Wijaya, I. P., Griffiths, A. D., Ladame, S. & Drevelle, A. (2013). Analytical Chemistry, 85(20), 9807-9814.
Droplet-based microfluidics is a powerful technique allowing ultra-high-throughput screening of large libraries of enzymes or microorganisms for the selection of the most efficient variants. Most applications in droplet microfluidic screening systems use fluorogenic substrates to measure enzymatic activities with fluorescence readout. It is important, however, that there is little or no fluorophore exchange between droplets, a condition not met with most commonly employed substrates. Here we report the synthesis of fluorogenic substrates for glycosidases based on a sulfonated 7-hydroxycoumarin scaffold. We found that the presence of the sulfonate group effectively prevents leakage of the coumarin from droplets, no exchange of the sulfonated coumarins being detected over 24 h at 30°C. The fluorescence properties of these substrates were characterized over a wide pH range, and their specificity was studied on a panel of relevant glycosidases (cellulases and xylanases) in microtiter plates. Finally, the β-D-cellobioside-6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-methanesulfonate substrate was used to assay cellobiohydrolase activity on model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) in a droplet-based microfluidic format. These new substrates can be used to assay glycosidase activities in a wide pH range (4–11) and with incubation times of up to 24 h in droplet-based microfluidic systems.
Highly active β-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 43 operating on natural and artificial substrates.
Jordan, D. B., Wagschal, K., Grigorescu, A. A. & Braker, J. D. (2013). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97(10), 4415-4428.
The hemicellulose xylan constitutes a major portion of plant biomass, a renewable feedstock available for conversion to biofuels and other bioproducts. β-xylosidase operates in the deconstruction of the polysaccharide to fermentable sugars. Glycoside hydrolase family 43 is recognized as a source of highly active β-xylosidases, some of which could have practical applications. The biochemical details of four GH43 β-xylosidases (those from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens QYMF, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, and Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367) are examined here. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments indicate that the quaternary states of three of the enzymes are mixtures of monomers and homodimers (B. pumilus) or mixtures of homodimers and homotetramers (B. subtilis and L. brevis). k cat and k cat/k m values of the four enzymes are higher for xylobiose than for xylotriose, suggesting that the enzyme active sites comprise two subsites, as has been demonstrated by the X-ray structures of other GH43 β-xylosidases. The k i values for D-glucose (83.3–357 mM) and D-xylose (15.6–70.0 mM) of the four enzymes are moderately high. The four enzymes display good temperature (k t 0.5~~ 45°C) and pH stabilities (>4.6 to <10.3). At pH 6.0 and 25°C, the enzyme from L. brevis ATCC 367 displays the highest reported k cat and k cat/k m on natural substrates xylobiose (407 s-1, 138 s-1 mM-1), xylotriose (235 s-1, 80.8 s-1 mM-1), and xylotetraose (146 s-1, 32.6 s-1 mM-1).
Trans-α-xylosidase, a widespread enzyme activity in plants, introduces (1→ 4)-α-D-xylobiose side-chains into xyloglucan structures.
Franková, L. & Fry, S. C. (2012). Phytochemistry, 78, 29-43.
Angiosperms possess a retaining trans-α-xylosidase activity that catalyses the inter-molecular transfer of xylose residues between xyloglucan structures. To identify the linkage of the newly transferred α-xylose residue, we used [Xyl-3H]XXXG (xyloglucan heptasaccharide) as donor substrate and reductively-aminated xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGO–NH2) as acceptor. Asparagus officinalis enzyme extracts generated cationic radioactive products ([3H]Xyl·XGO–NH2) that were Driselase-digestible to a neutral trisaccharide containing an α-[3H]xylose residue. After borohydride reduction, the trimer exhibited high molybdate-affinity, indicating xylobiosyl-(1→6)-glucitol rather than a di-xylosylated glucitol. Thus the trans-α-xylosidase had grafted an additional α-[3H]xylose residue onto the xylose of an isoprimeverose unit. The trisaccharide was rapidly acetolysed to an α-[3H]xylobiose, confirming the presence of an acetolysis-labile (1→6)-bond. The α-[3H]xylobiitol formed by reduction of this α-[3H]xylobiose had low molybdate-affinity, indicating a (1→2) or (1→4) linkage. In NaOH, the α-[3H]xylobiose underwent alkaline peeling at the moderate rate characteristic of a (1→4)-disaccharide. Finally, we synthesised eight non-radioactive xylobioses [α and β; (1↔1), (1→2), (1→3) and (1→4)] and found that the [3H]xylobiose co-chromatographed only with (1→4)-α-xylobiose. We conclude that Asparagus trans-α-xylosidase activity generates a novel xyloglucan building block, α-D-Xylp-(1→4)-α-D-Xylp-(1→6)-D-Glc (abbreviation: ‘V’). Modifying xyloglucan structures in this way may alter oligosaccharin activities, or change their suitability as acceptor substrates for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity.
Trans‐α‐xylosidase and trans‐β-galactosidase activities, widespread in plants, modify and stabilize xyloglucan structures.
Franková, L. & Fry, S. C. (2012). The Plant Journal, 71(1), 45-60.
Cell-wall components are hydrolysed by numerous plant glycosidase and glycanase activities. We investigated whether plant enzymes also modify xyloglucan structures by transglycosidase activities. Diverse angiosperm extracts exhibited transglycosidase activities that progressively transferred single sugar residues between xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG or its reduced form, XXXGol) molecules, at 16 µm and above, creating octa- to decasaccharides plus smaller products. We measured remarkably high transglycosylation:hydrolysis ratios under optimized conditions. To identify the transferred monosaccharide(s), we devised a dual-labelling strategy in which a neutral radiolabelled oligosaccharide (donor substrate) reacted with an amino-labelled non-radioactive oligosaccharide (acceptor substrate), generating radioactive cationic products. For example, 37 µm [Xyl-3H]XXXG plus 1 mm XXLG-NH2 generated 3H-labelled cations, demonstrating xylosyl transfer, which exceeded xylosyl hydrolysis 1.6- to 7.3-fold, implying the presence of enzymes that favour transglycosylation. The transferred xylose residues remained α-linked but were relatively resistant to hydrolysis by plant enzymes. Driselase digestion of the products released a trisaccharide (α-[3H]xylosyl-isoprimeverose), indicating that a new xyloglucan repeat unit had been formed. In similar assays, [Gal-3H]XXLG and [Gal-3H]XLLG (but not [Fuc-3H]XXFG) yielded radioactive cations. Thus plants exhibit trans-α-xylosidase and trans-β-galactosidase (but not trans-α-fucosidase) activities that graft sugar residues from one xyloglucan oligosaccharide to another. Reconstructing xyloglucan oligosaccharides in this way may alter oligosaccharin activities or increase their longevity in vivo. Trans-α-xylosidase activity also transferred xylose residues from xyloglucan oligosaccharides to long-chain hemicelluloses (xyloglucan, water-soluble cellulose acetate, mixed-linkage β-glucan, glucomannan and arabinoxylan). With xyloglucan as acceptor substrate, such an activity potentially affects the polysaccharide’s suitability as a substrate for xyloglucan endotransglucosylase action and thereby modulates cell expansion. We conclude that certain proteins annotated as glycosidases can function as transglycosidases.
The GH67 α-glucuronidase of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 removes hexenuronic acid groups and facilitates biodegradation of the model xylooligosaccharide hexenuronosyl xylotriose.
Septiningrum, K., Ohi, H., Waeonukul, R., Pason, P., Tachaapaikoon, C., Ratanakhanokchai, K., Sermsathanaswadi, J., Deng, L., Prawitwong, P. & Kosugi, A. (2015). Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 71, 28-35.
4-O-Methylglucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side groups attached to the xylan backbone through α-1,2 linkages are converted to hexenuronic acid (HexA) during alkaline pulping. α-Glucuronidase (EC 188.8.131.52) hydrolyzes 1,2-linked MeGlcA from xylooligosaccharides. To determine whether α-glucuronidase can also hydrolyze HexA-decorated xylooligosaccharides, a gene encoding α-glucuronidase (AguA) was cloned from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6. The purified protein degraded hexenuronosyl xylotriose (ΔX3), a model substrate prepared from kraft pulp. AguA released xylotriose and HexA from ΔX3, but the Vmax and kcat values for ΔX3 were lower than those for MeGlcA, indicating that HexA side groups may affect the hydrolytic activity. To explore the potential for biological bleaching, ΔX3 degradation was performed using intracellular extract from P. curdlanolyticus B-6. The intracellular extract, with synergistic α-glucuronidase and β-xylosidase activities, degraded ΔX3 to xylose and HexA. These results indicate that α-glucuronidase can be used to remove HexA from ΔX3 derived from pulp, reducing the need for chemical treatments in the pulping process.