Versatile high resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research.
Pedersen, H. L., Fangel, J. U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M. G., Ralet, M. C., Farkas, V., Von Schantz, L., Marcus, S. E., Andersen, M.C. F., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J. P., Clausen, M. H. & Willats, W. G. T. (2012). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(47), 39429-39438.
Microarrays are powerful tools for high throughput analysis, and hundreds or thousands of molecular interactions can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Nucleotide microarrays are well established in plant research, but carbohydrate microarrays are much less established, and one reason for this is a lack of suitable glycans with which to populate arrays. Polysaccharide microarrays are relatively easy to produce because of the ease of immobilizing large polymers noncovalently onto a variety of microarray surfaces, but they lack analytical resolution because polysaccharides often contain multiple distinct carbohydrate substructures. Microarrays of defined oligosaccharides potentially overcome this problem but are harder to produce because oligosaccharides usually require coupling prior to immobilization. We have assembled a library of well characterized plant oligosaccharides produced either by partial hydrolysis from polysaccharides or by de novo chemical synthesis. Once coupled to protein, these neoglycoconjugates are versatile reagents that can be printed as microarrays onto a variety of slide types and membranes. We show that these microarrays are suitable for the high throughput characterization of the recognition capabilities of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and other oligosaccharide-binding proteins of biological significance and also that they have potential for the characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes.
β-Glucosidases from a new Aspergillus species can substitute commercial β-glucosidases for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.
Sørensen, A., Lübeck, P. S., Lübeck, M., Teller, P. J. & Ahring, B. K. (2011). Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 57(8), 638-650.
β-Glucosidase activity plays an essential role for efficient and complete hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Direct use of fungal fermentation broths can be cost saving relative to using commercial enzymes for production of biofuels and bioproducts. Through a fungal screening program for β-glucosidase activity, strain AP (CBS 127449, Aspergillus saccharolyticus) showed 10 times greater β-glucosidase activity than the average of all other fungi screened, with Aspergillus niger showing second greatest activity. The potential of a fermentation broth of strain AP was compared with the commercial β-glucosidase-containing enzyme preparations Novozym 188 and Cellic CTec. The fermentation broth was found to be a valid substitute for Novozym 188 in cellobiose hydrolysis. The Michaelis–Menten kinetics affinity constant as well as performance in cellobiose hydrolysis with regard to product inhibition were found to be the same for Novozym 188 and the broth of strain AP. Compared with Novozym 188, the fermentation broth had higher specific activity (11.3 U/mg total protein compared with 7.5 U/mg total protein) and also increased thermostability, identified by the thermal activity number of 66.8 vs. 63.4°C for Novozym 188. The significant thermostability of strain AP β-glucosidases was further confirmed when compared with Cellic CTec. The β-glucosidases of strain AP were able to degrade cellodextrins with an exo-acting approach and could hydrolyse pretreated bagasse to monomeric sugars when combined with Celluclast 1.5L. The fungus therefore showed great potential as an onsite producer for β-glucosidase activity.
Functional diversity of four glycoside hydrolase family 3 enzymes from the rumen bacterium Prevotella bryantii B14.
Dodd, D., Kiyonari, S., Mackie, R. I. & Cann, I. K. O. (2010). Journal of Bacteriology, 192(9), 2335-2345.
Prevotella bryantii B14 is a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes and contributes to the degradation of hemicellulose in the rumen. The genome of P. bryantii harbors four genes predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 (GH3) enzymes. To evaluate whether these genes encode enzymes with redundant biological functions, each gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant proteins revealed that the enzymes exhibit different substrate specificities. One gene encoded a cellodextrinase (CdxA), and three genes encoded β-xylosidase enzymes (Xyl3A, Xyl3B, and Xyl3C) with different specificities for either para-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates or substituted xylooligosaccharides. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity within this family of enzymes, the roles of conserved residues (R177, K214, H215, M251, and D286) in Xyl3B were probed by site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutation led to a severely decreased catalytic efficiency without a change in the overall structure of the mutant enzymes. Through amino acid sequence alignments, an amino acid residue (E115) that, when mutated to aspartic acid, resulted in a 14-fold decrease in the Kcat/Km for pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX) with a concurrent 1.1-fold increase in theKcat/Km for pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) was identified. Amino acid residue E115 may therefore contribute to the discrimination between β-xylosides and β-glucosides. Our results demonstrate that each of the four GH3 enzymes has evolved to perform a specific role in lignopolysaccharide hydrolysis and provide insight into the role of active-site residues in catalysis and substrate specificity for GH3 enzymes.
The family 6 carbohydrate binding module CmCBM6-2 contains two ligand-binding sites with distinct specificities.
Henshaw, J. L., Bolam, D. N., Pires, V. M. R., Czjzek, M., Henrissat, B., Ferreira, L. M. A., Fontes. C. M. G. A. & Gilbert, H. J. (2004). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(20), 21552-21559.
The microbial degradation of the plant cell wall is an important biological process, representing a major component of the carbon cycle. Enzymes that mediate the hydrolysis of this composite structure are modular proteins that contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) that enhance catalytic activity. CBMs are grouped into sequence-based families, and in a previous study we showed that a family 6 CBM (CBM6) that interacts with xylan contains two potential ligand binding clefts, designated cleft A and cleft B. Mutagenesis and NMR studies showed that only cleft A in this protein binds to xylan. Family 6 CBMs bind to a range of polysaccharides, and it was proposed that the variation in ligand specificity observed in these proteins reflects the specific cleft that interacts with the target carbohydrate. Here the biochemical properties of the C-terminal cellulose binding CBM6 (CmCBM6-2) from Cellvibrio mixtus endoglucanase 5A were investigated. The CBM binds to the β1,4-β1,3-mixed linked glucans lichenan and barley β-glucan, cello-oligosaccharides, insoluble forms of cellulose, the β1,3-glucan laminarin, and xylooligosaccharides. Mutagenesis studies, informed by the crystal structure of the protein (presented in the accompanying paper, Pires, V. M. R., Henshaw, J. L., Prates, J. A. M., Bolam, D., Ferreira, L. M. A. Fontes, C. M. G. A., Henrissat, B., Planas, A., Gilbert, H. J., Czjzek, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 21560-21568), show that both cleft A and B can accommodate cello-oligosaccharides and laminarin displays a preference for cleft A, whereas xylooligosaccharides exhibit absolute specificity for this site, and the β1,4,-β1,3-mixed linked glucans interact only with cleft B. The binding of CmCBM6-2 to insoluble cellulose involves synergistic interactions between cleft A and cleft B. These data show that CmCBM6-2 contains two binding sites that display differences in ligand specificity, supporting the view that distinct binding clefts with different specificities can contribute to the variation in ligand recognition displayed by family 6 CBMs. This is in sharp contrast to other CBM families, where variation in ligand binding is a result of changes in the topology of a single carbohydrate-binding site.
Studies of enzymatic cleavage of cellulose using polysaccharide analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE).
Kosik, O., Bromley, J. R., Busse-Wicher, M., Zhang, Z. & Dupree, P. (2012). Methods in Enzymology, 510, 51-67.
With the advent of fast genome analysis, many genes encoding novel putative cellulolytic enzymes are being identified in diverse bacterial and fungal genomes. The discovery of these genes calls for quick, robust, and reliable methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the enzymatic activities of the encoded proteins. Here, we describe the use of the polysaccharide analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) method, which was previously used, among other applications, to characterize various hemicellulose degrading enzymes; for structural elucidation of these carbohydrates; and for analysis of products resulting from enzymatic cleavage of cellulose. PACE relies on fluorescent labeling of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides at their reducing end and separation of the labeled carbohydrates by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Labeling can be carried out before or after enzymatic digestion. PACE is very sensitive and allows analysis of both substrate specificities and kinetic properties of cellulolytic enzymes.
Isolation and identification of phenolic glucosides from thermally treated olive oil byproducts.
Rubio-Senent, F., Lama-Muñoz, A., Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G. & Fernández-Bolaños, J. (2013). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(6), 1235-1248.
A liquid phase rich in bioactive compounds, such as phenols and sugars, is obtained from olive oil waste by novel thermal treatment. Two groups of fractions with common characteristics were obtained and studied after thermal treatment, acid hydrolysis, and separation by ultrafiltration, chromatography, and finally Superdex Peptide HR. In the first group, which eluted at the same time as oligosaccharides with a low DP (4–2), an oleosidic secoiridoid structure conjugated to a phenolic compound (hydroxytyrosol) was identified as oleuropeinic acid, and three possible structures were detected. In the second group, glucosyl structures formed by hydroxytyrosol and one, two, or three units of glucose or by tyrosol and glucose have been proposed. Verbascoside, a heterosidic ester of caffeic acid, in which hydroxytyrosol is linked to rhamnose–glucose or one of its isomers was also identified. Neutral oligosaccharides bound to a phenol-containing compound could be antioxidant-soluble fibers with bioactive properties.
Identification and characterization of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from three glycoside hydrolase families in the cerambycid beetle Apriona japonica.
Pauchet, Y., Kirsch, R., Giraud, S., Vogel, H. & Heckel, D. G. (2014). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 49, 1-13.
Xylophagous insects have evolved to thrive in a highly challenging environment. For example, wood-boring beetles from the family Cerambycidae feed exclusively on woody tissues, and to efficiently access the nutrients present in this sub-optimal environment, they have to cope with the lignocellulose barrier. Whereas microbes of the insect's gut flora were hypothesized to be responsible for the degradation of lignin, the beetle itself depends heavily on the secretion of a range of enzymes, known as plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), to efficiently digest both hemicellulose and cellulose networks. Here we sequenced the larval gut transcriptome of the Mulberry longhorn beetle, Apriona japonica (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae), in order to investigate the arsenal of putative PCWDEs secreted by this species. We combined our transcriptome with all available sequencing data derived from other cerambycid beetles in order to analyze and get insight into the evolutionary history of the corresponding gene families. Finally, we heterologously expressed and functionally characterized the A. japonica PCWDEs we identified from the transcriptome. Together with a range of endo-β-1,4-glucanases, we describe here for the first time the presence in a species of Cerambycidae of (i) a xylanase member of the subfamily 2 of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5 subfamily 2), as well as (ii) an exopolygalacturonase from family GH28. Our analyses greatly contribute to a better understanding of the digestion physiology of this important group of insects, many of which are major pests of forestry worldwide.
Structure and Function of a Novel Cellulase 5 from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome.
Alvarez, T. M., Paiva, J. H., Ruiz, D. M., Cairo, J. P. L. F., Pereira, I. O., Paixão, D. A. A., de Almeida, R. F., Tonoli, C. C. C., Ruller, R., Santos, C. R., Squina, F. M. & Murakami, M. T. (2013). PloS one, 8(12), e83635.
Cellulases play a key role in enzymatic routes for degradation of plant cell-wall polysaccharides into simple and economically-relevant sugars. However, their low performance on complex substrates and reduced stability under industrial conditions remain the main obstacle for the large-scale production of cellulose-derived products and biofuels. Thus, in this study a novel cellulase with unusual catalytic properties from sugarcane soil metagenome (CelE1) was isolated and characterized. The polypeptide deduced from the celE1 gene encodes a unique glycoside hydrolase domain belonging to GH5 family. The recombinant enzyme was active on both carboxymethyl cellulose and β-glucan with an endo-acting mode according to capillary electrophoretic analysis of cleavage products. CelE1 showed optimum hydrolytic activity at pH 7.0 and 50°C with remarkable activity at alkaline conditions that is attractive for industrial applications in which conventional acidic cellulases are not suitable. Moreover, its three-dimensional structure was determined at 1.8 Å resolution that allowed the identification of an insertion of eight residues in the β8-α8 loop of the catalytic domain of CelE1, which is not conserved in its psychrophilic orthologs. This 8-residue-long segment is a prominent and distinguishing feature of thermotolerant cellulases 5 suggesting that it might be involved with thermal stability. Based on its unconventional characteristics, CelE1 could be potentially employed in biotechnological processes that require thermotolerant and alkaline cellulases.
Clostridium thermocellum cellulase CelT, a family 9 endoglucanase without an Ig-like domain or family 3c carbohydrate-binding module.
Kurokawa, J., Hemjinda, E., Arai, T., Kimura, T., Sakka, K. & Ohmiya, K. (2002). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 59(4), 455-461.
The celT gene of Clostridium thermocellum strain F1 was found downstream of the mannanase gene man26B [Kurokawa J et al. (2001) Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:548–554] in pKS305. The open reading frame of celT consists of 1,833 nucleotides encoding a protein of 611 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 68,510. The mature form of CelT consists of a family 9 cellulase domain and a dockerin domain responsible for cellulosome assembly, but lacks a family 3c carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain, which are often found with family 9 catalytic domains. CelT devoid of the dockerin domain (CelTΔdoc) was constructed and purified from a recombinant Escherichia coli, and its enzyme properties were examined. CelTΔdoc showed strong activity toward carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and barley β-glucan, and low activity toward xylan. The Vmax and Km values were 137 µmol min-1 mg-1 and 16.7 mg/ml, respectively, for CMC. Immunological analysis indicated that CelT is a catalytic component of the C. thermocellum F1 cellulosome. This is the first report describing the characterization of a family 9 cellulase without an Ig-like domain or family 3c CBM.
Kinetics of the enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by the endoglucanase from the extremophile S. solfataricus.
Bonhage, B., Seiferheld, B. & Spiess, A. C. (2013). In Kraslawski A, Turunen I (eds.). Proceedings of the 23rd European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, 23, 85-90.
The hydrolysis of cellulose is a necessary step to provide sugars from biomass, e.g. for fermentation. A promising approach is to hydrolyse cellulose enzymatically. Naturally, cellulolytic enzymes appear in mixtures of at least four different enzyme activities. Until now, research has focused on these enzyme mixtures. But, to accurately describe cellulose hydrolysis, it is essential to identify the individual kinetic parameters of the employed cellulases. Therefore, we investigated the behaviour of the extremophile endoglucanase (EG) SSO1354 from S. solfataricus on cello-oligomers (COs) to determine its kinetic performance. The properties of interest were the binding affinity as function of the chain length of the cellulose as well as inhibitory and activating effects of short COs. We monitored the evolution of the chain length distribution over the reaction time using thin layer chromatography and the formation of reducing sugars with a colorimetric assay. According to the measurements, the cellulase requires a chain length of four or more glucose units to be catalytically active and the enzyme gets more active with increasing chain length. Also, cellotriose (C3) is an inhibitor for the used EG, and cellobiose (C2) seems to be an enzyme activator, in contrast to literature. With the obtained results it should be possible to mechanistically describe the hydrolysis of cellulose.
A novel exo-cellulase from white spotted longhorn beetle (Anoplophora malasiaca).
Chang, C. J., Wu, C. P., Lu, S. C., Chao, A. L., Ho, T. H. D., Yu, S. M. & Chao, Y. C. (2012). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(9), 629-636.
Wood feeding insects depends heavily on the secretion of a combination of cellulases, mainly endoglucanases and other glucanases such as exoglucanases and xylanases, for efficient digestion of the cellulosic materials. To date, although a high number of endoglucanases have been found in xytophagous insects, little is known about exoglucanases encoded in the genome of these insects. Here we report the identification and isolation of an exoglucanase, designated as AmCel-5B, from the white spotted longhorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca. The optimal condition of enzymatic activity was found to be 50°C and pH 4.0. Interestingly, this enzyme is not only exhibited exo-β-glucanase activity, but also with obvious endo-β-glucanase activity. Furthermore, this enzyme is unique in that, although it recognizes Avicel, evidenced as an exo-β-glucanase, it cannot recognize oligosaccharides smaller than cellohexaose. This may explain why longhorn beetle can well digest hard “living” wood, which contains primarily rigid long fibers. Although it is known that metal ions can enhance the activity of some cellulases, we further demonstrated that reducing agent could work synergistically with metal ions for significant activity enhancement of AmCel-5B. The discovery and investigation of an insect exoglucanase should lead to a greater understanding of the mechanism for efficient digestion of cellulosic materials by wood feeding insects, as well as facilitate their potential applications in the production of bioenergy and biomaterials from lignocellulosic biomass in the future.
Processivity, synergism, and substrate specificity of Thermobifida fusca Cel6B.
Vuong, T. V. & Wilson, D. B. (2009). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(21), 6655-6661.
A relationship between processivity and synergism has not been reported for cellulases, although both characteristics are very important for hydrolysis of insoluble substrates. Mutation of two residues located in the active site tunnel of Thermobifida fusca exocellulase Cel6B increased processivity on filter paper. Surprisingly, mixtures of the Cel6B mutant enzymes and T. fusca endocellulase Cel5A did not show increased synergism or processivity, and the mutant enzyme which had the highest processivity gave the poorest synergism. This study suggests that improving exocellulase processivity might be not an effective strategy for producing improved cellulase mixtures for biomass conversion. The inverse relationship between the activities of many of the mutant enzymes with bacterial microcrystalline cellulose and their activities with carboxymethyl cellulose indicated that there are differences in the mechanisms of hydrolysis for these substrates, supporting the possibility of engineering Cel6B to target selected substrates.