Hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan, acid-debranched wheat flour arabinoxylan and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides by β-xylanase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.
McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.
A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.
Novel bifunctional α-L-arabinofuranosidase/xylobiohydrolase (ABF3) from Penicillium purpurogenum.
Ravanal, M. C., Callegari, E. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2010). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(15), 5247-5253.
The soft rot fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural substrates and secretes various isoforms of xylanolytic enzymes, including three arabinofuranosidases. This work describes the biochemical properties as well as the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of arabinofuranosidase 3 (ABF3). This enzyme has been purified to homogeneity. It is a glycosylated monomer with a molecular weight of 50,700 and can bind cellulose. The enzyme is active with p-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside and p-nitrophenyl β-D-xylopyranoside with AKm of 0.65 mM and 12 mM, respectively. The enzyme is active on xylooligosaccharides, yielding products of shorter length, including xylose. However, it does not hydrolyze arabinooligosaccharides. When assayed with polymeric substrates, little arabinose is liberated from arabinan and debranched arabinan; however, it hydrolyzes arabinose and releases xylooligosaccharides from arabinoxylan. Sequencing both ABF3 cDNA and genomic DNA reveals that this gene does not contain introns and that the open reading frame is 1,380 nucleotides in length. The deduced mature protein is composed of 433 amino acids residues and has a calculated molecular weight of 47,305. The deduced amino acid sequence has been validated by mass spectrometry analysis of peptides from purified ABF3. A total of 482 bp of the promoter were sequenced; putative binding sites for transcription factors such as CreA (four), XlnR (one), and AreA (three) and two CCAAT boxes were found. The enzyme has two domains, one similar to proteins of glycosyl hydrolase family 43 at the amino-terminal end and a family 6 carbohydrate binding module at the carboxyl end. ABF3 is the first described modular family 43 enzyme from a fungal source, having both α-L-arabinofuranosidase and xylobiohydrolase functionalities.
The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.
de Souza, W. R., Maitan-Alfenas, G. P., de Gouvêa, P. F., Brown, N. A., Savoldi, M., Battaglia, E., Goldman M. H. S., deVries, R.P. & Goldman, G. H. (2013). Fungal Genetics and Biology, 60, 29-45.
The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production.
Homologous expression and biochemical characterization of the arylsulfatase from Kluyveromyces lactis and its relevance in milk processing.
Stressler, T., Leisibach, D., Lutz-Wahl, S., Kuhn, A. & Fischer, L. (2016). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(12), 5401-5414.
The industrial manufacturing process of lactose-free milk products depends on the application of commercial β-galactosidase (lactase) preparations. These preparations are often obtained from Kluyveromyces lactis. There is a gene present in the genome of K. lactis which should encode for an enzyme called arylsulfatase (EC 22.214.171.124). Therefore, this enzyme could also be present in β-galactosidase preparations. The arylsulfatase is suspected of being responsible for an unpleasant “cowshed-like” off-flavor resulting from the release of p-cresol from milk endogenous alkylphenol sulfuric esters. So far, no gene/functionality relationship is described. In addition, no study is available which has shown that arylsulfatase from K. lactis is truly responsible for the flavor generation. In this study, we cloned the putative arylsulfatase gene from K. lactis GG799 into the commercially available vector pKLAC2. The cloning strategy chosen resulted in a homologous, secretory expression of the arylsulfatase. We showed that the heretofore putative arylsulfatase has the desired activity with the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl sulfate and with the natural substrate p-cresol sulfate. The enzyme was biochemically characterized and showed an optimum temperature of 45-50 C and an optimum pH of 9-10. Additionally, the arylsulfatase was activated by Ca2+ ions and was inactivated by Zn2+ ions. Moreover, the arylsulfatase was inhibited by p-cresol and sulfate ions. Finally, the enzyme was added to ultra-heat treated (UHT) milk and a sensory triangle test verified that the arylsulfatase from K. lactis can cause an unpleasant “cowshed-like” off-flavor.
Penicillium purpurogenum produces a novel endo-1,5-arabinanase, active on debranched arabinan, short arabinooligosaccharides and on the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl arabinofuranoside.
Vilches, F., Ravanal, M. C., Bravo-Moraga, F., Gonzalez-Nilo, D. & Eyzaguirre, J. (2018). Carbohydrate Research, 455, 106-113.
Penicillium purpurogenum secretes numerous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, including four arabinofuranosidases and an exo-arabinanase. In this work, the biochemical properties of an endo-arabinanase (ABN1) are presented. A gene, coding for a potential ABN was mined from the genome. It includes three introns. The cDNA is 975 bp long and codes for a mature protein of 324 residues. The cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan and arabinooligosaccharides. In contrast to other characterized ABNs, inactive on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPAra), ABN1 is active on this substrate. The enzyme has an optimal pH of 4.5 and an optimal temperature of 30-35°C. Calcium does not activate ABN1. ABN1 belongs to GH family 43 sub-family 6, and a Clustal alignment with sequences of characterized fungal ABNs shows highest identity (54.6%) with an ABN from Aspergillus aculeatus. A three-dimensional model of ABN1 was constructed and the docking with pNPAra was compared with similar models of an enzyme very active on this substrate and another lacking activity, both from GH family 43. Differences in the number of hydrogen bonds between enzyme and substrate, and distance between the substrate and the catalytic residues may explain the differences in activity shown by these enzymes.
Mechanisms of utilisation of arabinoxylans by a porcine faecal inoculum: competition and co-operation.
Feng, G., Flanagan, B. M., Mikkelsen, D., Williams, B. A., Yu, W., Gilbert, R. G. & Gidley, M. J. (2018). Scientific Reports, 8(1), 4546.
Recent studies show that a single or small number of intestinal microbes can completely degrade complex carbohydrates. This suggests a drive towards competitive utilisation of dietary complex carbohydrates resulting in limited microbial diversity, at odds with the health benefits associated with a diverse microbiome. This study investigates the enzymatic metabolism of wheat and rye arabinoxylans (AX) using in vitro fermentation, with a porcine faecal inoculum. Through studying the activity of AX-degrading enzymes and the structural changes of residual AX during fermentation, we show that the AX-degrading enzymes are mainly cell-associated, which enables the microbes to utilise the AX competitively. However, potential for cross-feeding is also demonstrated to occur by two distinct mechanisms: (1) release of AX after partial degradation by cell-associated enzymes, and (2) release of enzymes during biomass turnover, indicative of co-operative AX degradation. This study provides a model for the combined competitive-co-operative utilisation of complex dietary carbohydrates by gut microorganisms.