1‐allyloxy‐2‐hydroxy‐propyl‐starch: Synthesis and characterization.
Huijbrechts, A. A. M. L., Huang, J., Schols, H. A., Van Lagen, B., Visser, G. M., Boeriu, C. G. & Sudhölter, E. J. R. (2007). Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 45(13), 2734-2744.
New reactive unsaturated starch derivatives, 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl-starches (AHP-starches), were synthesized by the reaction of waxy maize starch (WMS) and amylose-enriched maize starch (AEMS) with allyl glycidyl ether in a heterogeneous alkaline suspension containing NaOH and Na2SO4. The degree of substitution (DS) was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and a DS of 0.20 ± 0.01 was found for both AHP-WMS and AHP-AEMS, respectively. The AHP derivatives of WMS and AEMS were further characterized with 1H and 13C NMR. It was shown that the AHP substitution was located on the C-6 hydroxyl group of the glucose residues in the starch. The substitution pattern of the AHP groups along the polymer chain was randomly clustered, as determined by enzymatic digestion using pullulanase, α-amylase, and amyloglucosidase, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the digestion products. With X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, no changes in the granular morphology and crystallinity between the unmodified starches and AHP-starches were detected.
Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches.
Huang, J., Schols, H. A., van Soest, J. J. G., Jin, Z., Sulmann, E. & Voragen, A. G. J. (2007). Food Chemistry, 101(4), 1338-1345.
Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 µm for cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches, respectively. All three legume starches showed a C-type X-ray diffraction pattern and two-stage swelling pattern. Amylopectin populations were isolated and the unit chain profiles were analyzed by HPLC after debranching with pullulanase. The degree of polymerization (DP) of short chain populations was about 6–50 and the populations of long chain had a DP of 50–80. Cowpea showed a lower weight ratio of short:long chains than chickpea and yellow pea starches. The larger portion of long side chains in cowpea amylopectin can be correlated with a higher gelatinization temperature, greater pasting peak and a slight difference in crystalline structure found for cowpea starch. Chickpea and yellow pea starches exhibited similarity in unit chain profile of amylopectin as well as in gelatinization temperature and pasting profile, while they differed in amylose content, particle size and syneresis. It is assumed that the chain length distribution of amylopectin has a large influence on starch properties.
Acetyl substitution patterns of amylose and amylopectin populations in cowpea starch modified with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate.
Huang, J., Schols, H. A., Klaver, R., Jin, Z. & Voragen, A. G. J. (2007). Carbohydrate Polymers, 67(4), 542-550.
To study the effect of reagent type on the distribution pattern of acetyl groups in acetylated cowpea starch, amylose and amylopectin populations were isolated from the starch granules after modification to a low degree of substitution (DS < 0.1) with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate, respectively. Slowly reacting reagent vinyl acetate resulted in higher DS values for the amylopectin populations when compared to the rapidly reacting reagent acetic anhydride. The two reagents had similar effects on the acetylation level of amylose, suggesting that the amorphous regions of granules were easily accessible for both reagents. The acetyl substitution patterns were analyzed by enzymatic degradation followed by characterization of the obtained fragments using chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. The distributions of acetyl groups along the amylose and amylopectin chains were more clustered for modification with vinyl acetate as compared with modification with acetic anhydride. Between the two acetylation types, pronounced differences in the acetyl substitution patterns were observed for the large fragments obtained after α-amylase digestion; only slight differences were exhibited for the small fragments obtained by exhaustive enzymatic digestion of amylose and amylopectin populations.
Production of oligosaccharides from extruded wheat and rye biomass using enzymatic treatment.
Makaravicius, T., Basinskiene, L., Juodeikiene, G., van Gool, M. P. & Schols, H. A. (2012). Catalysis Today, 196(1), 16-25.
Research on prebiotics and other novel health-promoting food components has been active for over a decade. Arabinoxylan (AX) derived arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS), which may have various chemical structures, depending on the xylan source and the degradation method used, stand increasingly in the spotlight as potential prebiotics. During the past decade, the studies of the possibilities to produce the AXOS by using biocatalytic conversion have received more attention. In addition, there is an interest in the use of novel cereal biomass for the production of AXOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various commercial enzyme preparations on the degradability of insoluble arabinoxylans in wheat and rye wholemeal treated by extrusion, identify and quantify xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) in treated media. The enzymatic degradation of rye and wheat cell wall materials was monitored by HPSEC, HPAEC and MALDI-TOF-MS techniques. It was noticed that there is no significant difference between extruded and natural cereals, and type of cereals had not significant influence on XOS and AXOS production. The most effective biocatalysts were hemicellulases expressed in the enzyme preparations from Trichoderma and Aspergillus spp. (Depol 692), Humicola and Bacillus spp. (Ceremix Plus). Degradability of rye and wheat cell wall materials by these enzyme preparations obtained break down percentages of 70–87% and 67–77%, respectively. After enzymatic treatment, only small amounts of xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose was eluted compare to the amount of more complex oligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization (DP). The mass spectra of oligosaccharides indicated the presence of a homologous series of pentoses ranging from DP 4 to 15. This indicates that chosen enzyme preparations acted well on wheat and rye biomass, and released quite high amounts of XOS and AXOS.
Molecular structure and granule morphology of native and heat‐moisture‐treated pinhão starch.
Pinto, V. Z., Moomand, K., Vanier, N. L., Colussi, R., Villanova, F. A., Zavareze, E. R., Lim, L. T. & Dias, A. R. G. (2015). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50(2), 282-289.
Pinhão seed is an unconventional source of starch and the pines grow up in native forests of southern Latin America. In this study, pinhão starch was adjusted at 15, 20 and 25% moisture content and heated to 100, 110 and 120°C for 1 h. A decrease in λ max (starch/iodine complex) was observed as a result of increase in temperature and moisture content of HMT. The ratio of crystalline to amorphous phase in pinhão starch was determined via Fourier transform infra red by taking 1045/1022 band ratio. A decrease in crystallinity occurred as a result of HMT. Polarised light microscopy indicated a loss of birefringence of starch granules under 120°C at 25% moisture content. Granule size distribution was further confirmed via scanning electron microscopy which showed the HMT effects. These results increased the understanding on molecular and structural properties of HMT pinhão starch and broadened its food and nonfood industrial applications.
A sorghum NAC gene is associated with variation in biomass properties and yield potential.
Xia, J., Zhao, Y., Burks, P., Pauly, M. & Brown, P. J. (2018). Plant Direct, 2(7), e00070.
Sorghum bicolor is a C4 grass widely cultivated for grain, forage, sugar, and biomass. The sorghum Dry Stalk (D) locus controls a qualitative difference between juicy green (dd) and dry white (D‐) stalks and midribs, and co‐localizes with a quantitative trait locus for sugar yield. Here, we apply fine‐mapping and genome‐wide association study (GWAS) to identify a candidate gene underlying D, and use nearly isogenic lines (NILs) to characterize the transcriptional, compositional, and agronomic effects of variation at the D locus. The D locus was fine‐mapped to a 36 kb interval containing four genes. One of these genes is a NAC transcription factor that contains a stop codon in the NAC domain in the recessive (dd) parent. Allelic variation at D affects grain yield, sugar yield, and biomass composition in NILs. Green midrib (dd) NILs show reductions in lignin in stalk tissue and produce higher sugar and grain yields under well‐watered field conditions. Increased yield potential in dd NILs is associated with increased stalk mass and moisture, higher biomass digestibility, and an extended period of grain filling. Transcriptome profiling of midrib tissue at the 4-6 leaf stages, when NILs first become phenotypically distinct, reveals that dd NILs have increased expression of a miniature zinc finger (MIF) gene. MIF genes dimerize with and suppress zinc finger homeodomain (ZF‐HD) transcription factors, and a ZF‐HD gene is associated with midrib color variation in a GWAS analysis across 1,694 diverse sorghum inbreds. A premature stop codon in a NAC gene is the most likely candidate polymorphism underlying the sorghum D locus. More detailed understanding of the sorghum D locus could help improve agronomic potential in cereals.