Novel substrates for the automated and manual assay of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.
Mangan, D., Cornaggia, C., Liadova, A., McCormack, N., Ivory, R., McKie, V. A., Ormerod, A. & McCleary, D. V. (2017). Carbohydrate Research, 445, 14-22.
endo-1,4-β-Xylanase (EC 126.96.36.199) is employed across a broad range of industries including animal feed, brewing, baking, biofuels, detergents and pulp (paper). Despite its importance, a rapid, reliable, reproducible, automatable assay for this enzyme that is based on the use of a chemically defined substrate has not been described to date. Reported herein is a new enzyme coupled assay procedure, termed the XylX6 assay, that employs a novel substrate, namely 4,6-O-(3-ketobutylidene)-4-nitrophenyl-β-45-O-glucosyl-xylopentaoside. The development of the substrate and associated assay is discussed here and the relationship between the activity values obtained with the XylX6 assay versus traditional reducing sugar assays and its specificity and reproducibility were thoroughly investigated.
Hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan, acid-debranched wheat flour arabinoxylan and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides by β-xylanase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.
McCleary, B. V., McKie, V. A., Draga, A., Rooney, E., Mangan, D. & Larkin, J. (2015). Carbohydrate Research, 407, 79-96.
A range of α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) were produced by hydrolysis of wheat flour arabinoxylan (WAX) and acid debranched arabinoxylan (ADWAX), in the presence and absence of an AXH-d3 α-L-arabinofuranosidase, by several GH10 and GH11 β-xylanases. The structures of the oligosaccharides were characterised by GC-MS and NMR and by hydrolysis by a range of α-L-arabinofuranosidases and β-xylosidase. The AXOS were purified and used to characterise the action patterns of the specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases. These enzymes, in combination with either Cellvibrio mixtus or Neocallimastix patriciarum β -xylanase, were used to produce elevated levels of specific AXOS on hydrolysis of WAX, such as 32-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylobiose (A3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A3XX), 22-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA2X), 32-α-L-Araf (1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (XA3X), 23-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2XX), 33-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA3XX), 23 ,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotriose (A2+3XX), 23,33-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylotetraose (XA2+3XX), 24,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA2+3XXX) and 33,34-di-α-L-Araf-(1-4)-β-D-xylopentaose (XA3A3XX), many of which have not previously been produced in sufficient quantities to allow their use as substrates in further enzymic studies. For A2,3XX, yields of approximately 16% of the starting material (wheat arabinoxylan) have been achieved. Mixtures of the α-L-arabinofuranosidases, with specific action on AXOS, have been combined with β-xylosidase and β-xylanase to obtain an optimal mixture for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan to L-arabinose and D-xylose.
The Multi Domain Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA Cellulase Excels at the Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose.
Brunecky, R., Donohoe, B. S., Yarbrough, J. M., Mittal, A., Scott, B. R., Ding, H., Taylor II, L., E., Russell, J. F., Chung, D., Westpheling, J., Teter, S. A., Himmel, M. E. & Bomble, Y. J. (2017). Scientific Reports, 7, 9622.
The crystalline nature of cellulose microfibrils is one of the key factors influencing biomass recalcitrance which is a key technical and economic barrier to overcome to make cellulosic biofuels a commercial reality. To date, all known fungal enzymes tested have great difficulty degrading highly crystalline cellulosic substrates. We have demonstrated that the CelA cellulase from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii degrades highly crystalline cellulose as well as low crystallinity substrates making it the only known cellulase to function well on highly crystalline cellulose. Unlike the secretomes of cellulolytic fungi, which typically comprise multiple, single catalytic domain enzymes for biomass degradation, some bacterial systems employ an alternative strategy that utilizes multi-catalytic domain cellulases. Additionally, CelA is extremely thermostable and highly active at elevated temperatures, unlike commercial fungal cellulases. Furthermore we have determined that the factors negatively affecting digestion of lignocellulosic materials by C. bescii enzyme cocktails containing CelA appear to be significantly different from the performance barriers affecting fungal cellulases. Here, we explore the activity and degradation mechanism of CelA on a variety of pretreated substrates to better understand how the different bulk components of biomass, such as xylan and lignin, impact its performance.